ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD INCLUDING LEGRAND AND WELTER
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LEGRAND AND WELTER
SOME WRITERS OF THE MODERN ERA
Biographical Information on Philippe Alexandre Felix Ernest Legrand and Franz Gabriel Welter
Philippe Alexandre Felix Ernest Legrand
In 1954, M. L’abbe Guillame Mollat wrote an article on the life and work of Philippe Legrand. [Another writer on the life of Legrand was F. Ollier in the Annals of University of Lyon, 1952-1953.] Philippe Legrand was born at Saint Doulchard, near Bourges, on 2 September 1866, and died on 1 July 1953. He was a specialist in Greek archaeology, prolific in his writings and regarded as an eminent teacher and scholar. He become a teacher and ranked first in his entry to the Ecole Normale in 1885. He was also ranked first when he obtained his Letters in 1888. He became Professor at the Faculty of Letters at the University of Lyon. After having resided in Greece as a member of the School of Athens Francois from 1888 to 1891, he was appointed Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Arts of Lyon. His doctorate theses in 1898 in Lyon, earned him, in 1902, the chair of philology and epigraphs. He retired in 1926 to Culan Castle, a historical fifteenth century castle inherited from his parents and his grandparents. The Academy elected him correspondent in December 1913; he became free member in 1933.
Mollat describes Legrand as a person who fulfilled his university and professional obligations with the absolute conscientiousness. When offered a teaching position at the Sorbonne, he refused to leave the University of Lyon because he wanted to pursue his scientific work with extreme dedication. When he retired at the age of 60, it was to devote himself to his task of writing journals. Philippe Legrand was regarded to have excelled in the art of writing his journals.
Philippe Legrande’s scientific work is dispersed in a series of articles in the Bulletin of Correspondence Hellenic and archaeological journals. His epigraphic texts were collected and written during his travels in Euboea, in Mysia, Bithynia, Phrygia and Paphlagonia and excavations operated under his leadership at Troizen.
Legrand’s writings include: Two Latin inscriptions of Carysias in BCH, 1889 p.519-523; Inscriptions of Euboea, ibid 1891, p. 404-412; Listings Astypalaia and Anaphi ibid, 1892, p.138-147; Statue of Hermes found at Damala 1892 ibid p. 165-174; listings Trezene, ibid, 1893, p. 84-121; Inscriptions of Phrygia, ibid p. 241-293; listings Mysia and Buthynie ibid 1893 p.534-536; listings Concept 1894 ibid p.216-221; listings Paphlagione, ibid 1897, p. 92-101; Excavations 1897 Trezene ibid p. 543-551; listings Trezene ibid 1900 p.178-215; Trezene of Antiquities, notes on topography ibid, 1905 p.52-57; New observations on a building of Trezene, ibid 1906 p.52-57. Contribution to the history of the Parthenon marbles 1894 t. XXIV p.28-33; Documents relating to Comte de Choiseul -Gouffier 1894 t. XXIV p. 216-219; Again the Parthenon Marbles 1895 t. XXVI p.237-239, and the biography of Louis-Francois Sebastien Fauvel antiquarian and Consul (1793-1858), 1897 t. XXX, p. 41-66, 185-201, 385-404, and t. XXXI p.94-103.
Legrand’s articles on Troizen in the Journal of Philology, 1902, p.99-104, were highly regarded.
Franz Gabriel Welter
Franz Gabriel Welter, a German classical archaeologist was born on May 16 1890 in Metz; he died on August 2 1954 in Athens.
He was born in Lorraine in a family that enjoyed French culture. As a 14 year-old high school student, he wrote a thesis on the lightning protection of Roman houses. One year later, he created a map of the Roman settlement around Metz. At the age of 18, he studied a Roman villa near Metz, releasing a publication on this. Welter studied at the German Universities of Strasbourg at Franz Winter, in Leipzig at Franz Studniczka , and also briefly in Rome. In Leipzig in 1914, he did his doctorate on a thesis about North African tomb buildings. In 1920, he founded the series of modules on archaeology, also publishing in the same year, a picture folder of the Karlsruhe vase collection. However, more than Welter’s first volume was not published.
The Athens Department of the German Archaeological Institute reopened after the World War I. So in the autumn after World War 1, Welter went to Athens, and Greece became Welter’s new home. Over the years, he worked as “voluntary assistant” (unpaid) for the Department of Athens German Archaeological Institute. The Central Directorate of the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin entrusted him from 1927 to 1937, with the authority over archaeologists based in Athens, who were undertaking archaeological studies and excavations.
Welter is widely quoted by archaeologists with an interest in Greek Classical Archaeology. For example, in an excerpt from her paper ‘The Peloponnesian Herakles: Cult and Labors, completed as a BrynMawr dissertation in December 1995’, Christina A. Salowey: (Source:www1.hollins.edu/faculty/saloweyca/Saloweytext.htm), wrote:
‘At Troizen there is a Fountain of Herakles, so named because he discovered the water (Paus. 2.32.4). Archaeologically, the spring can be verified. There is a fountain house that was supplied with water from a natural spring, originating at the base of Mt. Aderes, ancient Phorbantion. [G. Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia, Berlin 1941, 34 – 36.] The excavator, Welter, who believes that the site contained an Asklepieion, concluded that the mineralogical properties of the water at Troizen probably formed the basis for the cult of Asklepios and presence of ÞatroÛ at the site. Since the water from this spring was undoubtedly used in the sanctuary, it may have been therapeutic in some manner. Therefore, the legend may credit Herakles with the discovery of water with medicinal properties. Additionally, there are two pieces of epigraphical evidence which indicate the worship of Herakles at Troizen. A small marble base, dated to the 1st century B.C. bears a dedicatory inscription  and a stele, dated to the 5th century B.C., preserves a response to an oracle detailing that Euthymidas must sacrifice to Herakles Alios . These dedications in a healing shrine, as at Epidauros, indicate that Herakles was perhaps worshipped in his capacity as a healing divinity.’
Welter wrote ‘Troizen und Kalaureia’. Published 1941 by Gebr. Mann in Berlin. Written in German. Edition Notes “Bibliographie”: p. 66-68. At head of title: Archäologisches Institut des deutschen Reiches. Classifications Library of Congress DF261.T8 W4. The book contains 71 p. 44 plates (incl. maps; 1 fold.) 28 cm. Together with Legrand’s work, this is the text that is providing a valuable reference source for the 2012-2013 project. Welter’s other works include:
• Aigina; mit 87 abbildungen im text und einer übersichtskarte, which was published/created in 1938 by the same publishers as for Troizen and Kalaureia Berlin, Gebr. Mann, 1938. Classification Library of Congress DF261.A18 W4.
• Eine Archaologische Zeitschrift fur Palestine Gnomon, ISSN 0017-1417, 07/1931, Volume 7, Issue 7, pp. 397 – 398.
• Das neue Museum in Aigina Gnomon, ISSN 0017-1417, 05/1927, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp. 319 – 320.
Texts of Philippe Ernest Legrand and Gabriel Welter
As a first basis for its work, the Troizen 2012-2013 Archaeological Project, is referring to the texts of Legrand, Welter and the original Greek of Pausanias’s” Description of Greece “, as well as English translations of this work. The 2012-2013 project, when drawing the maps, plans and reconstructing the site (both the Acropolis and the Sanctuary of Hippolytus) will match the detailed descriptions provided by these and other previous writers of locations, dimensions and other characteristics of the river, walls, towers, temples, churches, pathways, theatres and other structures.
Legrand and Welter drew on the works of antiquarians, writers, archaeologists, travellers, and eminent scholars and teachers of Classical Greece. Legrand also drew on work undertaken in the late seventeenth century by both a Venetian group, an uncle and nephew team by the name of Fourmont.
Legrand published the results of his work at Troizen in five articles in French in the Bulletin Correspondence Hellenic between 1893 and 1906. Gabriel Welter published written in German, his 1941 ‘Troizen und Kalaureia’. Legrand and Welter have used many common references.
Legrand’s work contains the results of his field work and excavations in Troizen, the inscriptions he found in Troizen, the buildings of Troizen, and certain antique pieces found at Troizen. His articles can be found at website: http://www.persee with specific articles at: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1897_num_21_1_3552; http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1900_num_24_1_3406; http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1905_num_29_1_3303.
Some of the writers cited by Legrand were collaborators in their writings. For example, August Boeckh worked with J. Franz, E. Curtius, A. Kirchhoff and H. Röehl. Röehl, in his writings, uses many of the same references in his works as Legrand, for example, Overbeck, Michaelis, Leake.
Summary of the Five Articles of Legrand
1893: Inscriptions of Troizen. Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence 17, 1893, p. 84-121. Legrand’s 1893 article describes a comprehensive collection of inscriptions found at Troizen.The inscriptions gave information about dedications, for example, in honour of an emperor; decrees in honour of gymnasts, or priests like Augustus Fortune; hygiene and care of physical cleanliness; and the process of how the oracle functioned at Troizen. The following is a few examples to illustrate the inscriptions found:
• Artemnis has two temples inside the city: one, the agora, dedicated to Artemis Soteira, the other near the theatre, dedicated to Artemis Lykeia.
• An inscription surmounted by a bas-relief in the middle, a small figure representing the honoured personage, a larger figure, left; and a woman leaning on a spear, right.
• A decree made in honour of Echilas, son of Philonidas, Plataeaen, who earns the praise, the title of Euergetes , with quotes for him and his family. Services that have earned these rewards are not clearly specified in the inscription.
• An inscription of the redemption prisoners which suggests that there was talk of a war.
• The implication of the existence of a confederation with Crete.
• Fragment of a decree with three crowns beneath, with only a few of the letters being legible. This fragment is mentioned because on the last line one can see the name of Hippolytus.
• Fragment of a decree, the honour rendered in favour, of Ision, son of Timothy.
• Payment of eight pipes at Euxonos (eg pipes used to drain the soil). It mentions earthworks; the site has been cleared, levelled, cuttings thrown on a road.
• A stele of Euthymidas.
• A column that belonged to a door with the epitaph that it served as a tripod won by Thebes.
• The Asklepieion as a sacred source.
1897: Excavations Troezen. Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 21, 1897. pp. 543-551. doi: 10.3406/bch.1897.3552. This work focuses on the finds Legrand made and inscriptions he recorded on items on “the terrace”, i.e. in the area we know as the sanctuary of Hippolytus. He mentions that the Greek Government asked him to abandon his monuments, but that some pieces that came from the foot of the modern village are stored in the Museum Eremcastro.
Other details include:
• A description, dimensions, and location of the building Kokkinia Episkopi and surrounding buildings on “the terrace”, noting that these had been razed to their foundations.
• Many architectural fragments of large whitish coarse grain stone 3cm thick; tiles; painted tiles in yellow and black Greek palmettes; debris of small statuettes in bronze and a small serpent; small cups and bowls.
• Inscriptions on remains/fragments which appear to be altars or pedestals. Some of the inscriptions found in the Palaeo-Episkopi are dedications, for example, one is a dedication in honour of a gymnast, others are decrees honouring someone, another is a dedication to Asklepius and another stele of Euthymida, the water man.
• The gymnasium seems to have been within or nearby to the temenos of Hippolyte.
• An antique fountain lying above the great temple of Hippolytus. Legrand hypothosises that the sanctuary would have minutes of consultations, healing lists, and details of pilgrims who visited for health reasons.
1900: Troezen Inscriptions. Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215. doi: 10.3406/bch.1900.3406. Legrand was in Greece and also Troizen between September and November 1899. The paper describes finds with inscriptions found in the area of the Acropolis and the lower city of Troizen. The inscriptions appear to date from ancient Troizen, to the time when Greece lost its independence to Rome, to the beginning of the Christian era. He admits to not undertaking detailed surveys, but for the most part he provides location, dimensions and details of the inscriptions. Most of the finds were columns, pedestals, stele, statues, and other large stones and funerary objects. Legrand suffered the problematical issues of deciphering and translating the finds, but one can conclude from what he writes that the inscriptions are dedications or decrees in honour of various citizens, prominent people or athletes and gymnasts; funerary writings; decrees about war events and issues of government including the treatment of foreigners and fishing rules. Some of the statues commemorated feats or special abilities of certain citizens and great men and women, for example:
• an athlete named Damotimos;
• a young Athenian;
• a priestess of Athena.
In most cases Legrand was able to identify the names of the people cited on the inscriptions and decrees. Some of the inscriptions discussed in the article describe:
• difficulties with the military pending the establishment of a modus vivandi between Troizen and another city. Legrand says ‘it remains for us to seek the city which is dealing with Troizen ….’ He also wanted to identify the time in history to which this inscription was referring to- he suggests that it may be Epidaurus;
• matters of government, debt owed by Troizen, property matters, and treatment of foreigners;
• fishing laws ‘Fishing was leased by the State to private individuals and it was only fishing for tuna halai’; and
• a decree about Sparta.
These inscriptions provide information about the people as well as the history of government in Troizen. In this paper, Legrand also writes that there were three sanctuaries of Apollo at Troizen:
1. Apollo Platanistios – in the mountains on the road to Ilermoine.
2. Apollo Epibalerios in the temenos Hippolyttus and not far from Palaio Episkopi.
3. Apollo Tbearios in the precincts of the city and a short distance from the garden Pardalis in the foundations of Agios Georgios.
1900: Troezen Inscriptions. Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215doi: 10.3406/bch.1905.3303. Legrand’s 1905 publication provides topographical description of the Acropolis and the fertile Plain of Troizen below (the terrace overlooking the harbour); dimensions and characteristics of buildings and finds; fine descriptions of the finds and some illustrations of these, and refers to Pausanias and others who wrote about Troizen. The paper suggests that Legrand faced some of the same issues as the 2012-2013 project, in as much as many of the ancient remains are covered by foliage on the Acropolis, while the fertile plain is covered in vines, olive groves, and citrus orchards. He begins by saying:
“The only information we possess ancient the topography of Troezen provided to us by Pausanias (II, 31-32)” .
The main matters described by Legrand in this 1905 paper are:
(a) The Acropolis:
– an area which is overall steep and hilled
-has the upper town which is on the side of a mountain;
-has the Devil’s Bridge close by;
– the Acropolis is the plateau, and below is the fertile plain of Troizen described as partly ploughed and skirted by the harbour;
– the Acropolis and the Troizen city on the plain form a triangle.
-is surrounded by fortifications containing the remains of a large church, towers, and walls (Legrand writes of walls of beautiful stones well- formed and matched and quadrangle stones; it contains the ancient Temple of Athena Stheniade on top of the Acropolis, and other temples such as the Temple of Pan.
(b) Finds including architectural fragments marked with ionic writings and inscriptions; potsherds, Frankish currency from the thirteenth century; sarcophagi containing personal items of gold, potsherds, bronze ornaments of animals and birds; remains of marble statues; storage barrels.
(c) Sources of water from a river.
(d) The fertile Troizen plain is known as the Region Episkopi, and has the house of Kokkinia, ruined church of Palaia Episkopi, temenos of Hippolyte on the edge of the terrace overlooking the plain to the harbour, the temple of Aphrodite, monuments to the worship of Asclepius, the fountain of Hercules and possibly the tomb of Phaidra. Byzantine debris has also been found in this area.
(e) The mention by Pausanias of a temple of Aphrodite Akraia overlooking a temple of Isis.
1906: New observations on a building Troezen. Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence 1906 Volume 30 Issue 30 pp. .. 52-57. Legrand’s 1906 publication discusses his find of a banquet hall, and some of its design features. Legrand collaborated with his close colleague Professor Franz Studniczka (14 August 1860 – 4 December 1929 a German professor of classical archaeology), in relation to the design and measurements of this hall. For example, in the calculations of Professor Studniczka, this great hall of the hestiatorion at Troizen had contained fifty klinai (couches – in a type of ancient furniture used by the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Romans in their symposia or Convivia. Three Klinai were arranged in a ‘U’ shape, which together with the adjoining ‘T’ formed the Triclinium, which was where the dinner guests reclined during the meal).
One feature of this hall writes Legrand, is that the furniture has been designed to cater for guests of different sizes. The article notes that this hall is consistent with other similar buildings in Greece such as one in Megara. The hall also contained a number of small rooms.
1941 Gabriel Welter : Although ‘Troizen und Kalaureia’ was published in 1941 in Germany in German, he was actually in Troizen in the 1930’s. Gabriel Welter refers to many of the writers that Legrand refers to including Legrand himself. Welter’s ‘Troizen and Kalauria’ provides fine detail of his findings at Troizen. The locations of the findings are documented, supported with maps, drawings and photos. Welter also measured many of the features he discovered and studied at Troizen. His writings describe:
• the land and geography in and around Troizen.
• the features as they relate to the geography of Troizen.
• the monuments of the Agora at Troizen.
• the sanctuary of the Akropolis including the Temple of Aphrodite Akraia, the Temple of Isis, and the Temple of Pan.
• features outside the city wall, including the sanctuary of Theomophoros.
• what he found at Troizen at the Asklepieion, the Terrace of the city, the Propylon and the Temples.
• the running fountain (which he says is never dry) of Herakles, a small hall with an altar, porticos, groups of rooms, a small terrace sanctuary.
• a chronology of the construction and development of the shrine of the sanctuary.
• a chemical analysis of the waters from the fountain of Herakles.
• the temple of Hippolytus, the Temple of Artemis Saronia.
• a reference to Aphrodite Kataskopia.
• the features of the gymnasium of Hippolytus.
• the tombs and graves of Troizen.
References to BCH and IGA
Many references are made by Legrand and Welter to BCH and IGA.
The acronym IGA in the references is, “Inscriptions Graecae antiquissimae, written by I.G.A.H. Roehl. In ‘Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, praeter Atticas in Attica repertas’ Berlin: 1882, Roehl wrote (source Wikipedia):
‘The Stone of Terpon or Pebble of Antibes (Galet d’Antibes) is an ancient artifact excavated near the seawall of Antibes, France (the ancient Antipolis) in 1866 (). The stone is held in the Musée d’Histoire et d’Archéologie adjacent to that same seawall in Antibes. The stone’s inscription has been dated to between 450 – 425 BC, and the object may once have marked the entrance to a brothel.
Inscription: ‘The stone is formed in a phallic shape (23″ long, 8” thick, 73 lbs.), with a carved inscription in Ionic Greek reading:
ΤΕΡΠΩΝ ΕΙΜΙ ΘΕΑΣ ΘΕΡΑΠΩΝ
ΤΟΙΣ ΔΕ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΗΣΑΣΙ ΚΥΠΡΙΣ
In standard Greek orthography the text would read:
Τέρπων εἰμὶ θεάς θεράπων σεμνῆς Ἀφροδίτης
Τοῖς δὲ καταστήσασι Κύπρις χάριν ἀνταποδοίη.
It forms a distych in dactylic hexameter:
The inscription can be roughly translated as: “I am Terpon, servant of noble Aphrodite, may Kypris therefore give grace to those who entrusted me with this task.’[References: L.H. Jeffery: Local Scripts of Archaic Greece (LSAG), no. 288.03
H. Roehl, Inscriptiones Graecae antiquissimae (IGA), no. 551
H. Roehl, Imagines Inscriptionum Graecarum antiquissimarum, edition 3 pp. 31 no. 52 Carmina Epigraphica Graeca, no. 400.]
The acronym BCH in the references is “Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique” which translated means “Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence”. Suiv in the references is French for ‘next’.
From http://www.intute.ac.uk/cgi-bin/fullrecord.pl?handle=20080125-1441289, we note that: “The Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (BCH) is a major academic journal publishing papers and excavation reports related to the research activities carried out by members of the French School of Athens; all contents are in French. The Bulletin is well known by both scholars and students interested in the archaeology of Greece and it is an essential publication on Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek and Byzantine archaeology. The journal publishes two issues every year, the first issue contains academic papers and the second one contains further papers and the excavation reports of excavations run by the French School or in which the School participates; news and summaries about all excavations carried out that year in Greece are also included. It is possible to perform searches of the journal, but full-text search of the contents is not available. At the time of review all issues from 1877 to 2000 were included; newer issues are also planned to be digitised, but will probably appear online a few years later after the printed version. However, the available issues remain of paramount importance for any scholar or student. This website should be an essential tool of work to study the archaeology of ancient Greece.
In separate sections can be found also the volumes of the tables of contents, which could prove very handy, and the “Suppléments au Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique”, which publishes a series of monographs. Among the available volumes in the series are: “Iconographie classique et identités régionales” (Classical iconography and regional identity); “Les villes de Macédoine à l’époque romaine” (The Macedonian villas of Roman period); “Recherches sur la céramique byzantine” (researches on Byzantine ceramics, proceedings); “L’habitat égéen préhistorique” (the prehistoric Aegean environment, proceedings); “La Vallée de l’Énipeus en Thessalie” (the Enipeus Valley in Thessaly); “Polydipsion Argos. Argos de la fin des palais mycéniens à la constitution de l’État classique” (Argos from the end of Mycenaean palaces to the constitution of the Classical state, proceedings); “Les ateliers de potiers dans le monde grec aux époques géométrique, archaïque et classique” (the workshops of ceramists in the Greek world during the Geometric, Archaic and Classical periods, proceedings); “Dikili Tash. Village préhistorique de Macédoine orientale” (Dikili Tash, prehistoric village in eastern Macedonia); Mykénaïka (proceedings of the 9th international conference on Mycenaean and Aegean texts, 1992); “La Crète mycénienne” (Mycenaean Crete, proceedings, 1997); and “Delphes cent ans après la Grande fouille. Essai de bilan” (Delphi a century after the great excavation, proceedings, 2000).”
Bibliography from the five Legrand articles published between 1893 and 1906.
Information where available, about some of the key writers is included in the Bibliography.
1893 Philip Ernest Legrand Bulletin Correspondence Hellenic 17, 1893, p. 84-121- Inscriptions of Troizen
1. Kirchhoff, Adolf . Studien zur Gesch Des Griech Alph 4, 160; p 100. [Adolf Kirchhoff was a philologist born in Berlin January 6, 1826. He taught at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium (1846-1865), and the University of Berlin. He was one of the philologists and the leading epigraphers of his time. His main works of Greek Philology are Die Homerische Odyssee (complete edition, Berlin, 1879); Die Abfassungszeit des Herodotischen Gesehichstswerks (1868 2nd ed., 1878); critical editions of Plotinus (Leipzig, 1856, 2 vols), Euripides (1867-68, 3 vol.),Aeschylus (1880) and the Republic of Athenians of Xenophon (1874; 2nd ed., 1881). Epigraphic works include: Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmoeler ( Aufrecht, Berlin, 1849-51, 2 vol.);Das Stadtrecht von Davidlawson5555 (1852); Das gotische Runenalphabet (1852) and Die fraenkischen runes (1855, in the Zt. für deutsches Altertum by Haupt). In le Corpus inscriptionum graecarum, it has provided for the t.I, prior to Euclidregistration; t. IV Christian inscriptions; Studien zur Gesch. of the Griech. Alphabets (1863, 4th ed..)(1887) (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia)] 2. Ross, Ludwig Inselreisen 11, p 99. [Inselreisen- Resein auf den grieschischen Inseln des Agaischen Meeres Vols I /II [Island travel. Travel to the Greek islands of the Aegean Sea. Hildesheim: Georg OLMS, 1985 8°. XXVI, 350 pp., b/w illustrations, 1 map. Linen 2 parts in 1 band. Originally appeared as band 1 & 3 of the series “Classics of archaeology island trips = L. Ross, island trips, volumes 1 and 2, reprint, Halle a. S. 1912 (classics, the arch archaeology, vol. 1 and 3). (Source: website Vrougounda, Elf Stunden)] 3. Homolle, Theophile. (BCH, V p 272; VII, p 254).[ Theophile Homolle, who with others in 1877, on behalf of the French Archaeological Institute, prosecuted very extensive investigations on the site of the town on Delos in the time around 1877. Excavations were made by the French School at Athens upon the island of Delos chiefly by Theophile Homolle.] 4. Hermes, XV, p226, P543; p 547.
5. Aristide (1, p 411).
6. Pausanias, Book 1 pps. 25, 34; Book IX p. 39; Book 11 pps. 5, 8, 27, 31, 32.
7. Vita Appollonii, 1, 9.
8. Pherecr, dans Phot. Lexie.
9. Eg ‘Apx (this is supposed to be Greek writing to be translated), 1885 pps.16, 21-22, 207.
10. Ovide, Fast, 111, 265.
11. Ovide, Metam, XV, 536.
12. Apollod, 111,10,3.
13. Sext., Empir, 1, 12.
14. Sc. Pindar, Pyth, 3, 96.
15. Eratosth, c6 ct 29.
16. Hippol., 952 suiv.
18. Luc., Eloge de Demosth., 27.
19. Polit., VII, 14.
20. Cauer, 48 = IGA, 30.
21. Dittenberger, Wilhelm. Sylloge, 389.[ Wilhelm Dittenberger born August 31, 1840 in Heidelberg, died December 29, 1906 in Halle (Saale), was a German philologist in classic epigraphy, specialising in Greek epigraphy. He studied classical philology at Jena and Göttingen universities from 1859 to 1863, and graduated with a doctorateIn. He became professor of classical philology at the University of Halle. He was a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and of the German Archaeological Institute.
His name is associated with the selection of collections, the Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (later edited by Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen) and ‘Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae’. Inscriptiones Graecae was Dittenberger’s compilation of ancient inscriptions from the Roman era. Publications include:
Inscriptions Graecae Vol 3: Inscriptions Atticae Aetatis Romanae. 2 parts. Reimer, Berlin 1878-1882. Reprint 1977-1978, ISBN 3-11-004911-2, ISBN 3-11-007004-9
Vol 7: Inscriptions et Megaridis Boeotiae . Reimer, Berlin 1892nd Reprint 1978, ISBN 3-11-007005-7
Vol 9, 1: Inscriptions Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, Insularum maris Ionii . Reimer, Berlin 1897, reprinted 1978, ISBN 3-11-007006-5 .
Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum . 2 vols. Leipzig 1883rd
Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae . 2 vols. Leipzig, 1903-1905. Reprint Olms, Hildesheim, 1986, ISBN 3-487-00028-8, ISBN 3-487-00029-6 .
Wilfried Gawantka: Updating Concordances to Dittenberger’s Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae (OGIS) and the third edition of which he authored: Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (3rd ed.) . Hildesheim (1977) ISBN 3-487-06447-2
Wilhelm Dittenberger (1840–1906). On 100th year to the death of an important scholar and dedicated local politician. Hans-Dieter Zimmermann, Yearbook for Halle City History 2006. Stekovics, Hall 2006, pp. 264–269, ISBN 978-3-89923-133-5.] 22. Cnide [Welter uses Knidos] (Newton, Knidos: Newton: Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Knidos usw (etc), Nos. 40, 50, 51).
23. Ov ils venaient d’Argos (CIG, 1.p.504). [this translated means “Ov they came from Argos”] 24. Ni syros, colonie d’Argos (Cauer, 169). [which translated means “Or syros, colony of Argos”] 25. Camiros de Rhodes, colonie d’Argos (Cauer, 187) and Fourcart, Rev.arch. 1866, p.36.
26. d’ou ils furent momentanement introduits a Naxos (CIG, 2416). [this translated means “from which they were momentarily introduced in Naxos”] 27. Boeckh. [Philipp August Böeckh, a German classical scholar and antiquarian, was born in Karlsruhe on 24 November, 1785 and died in Berlin on 3 August 1867. He was educated at the local gymnasium; in 1803 he left for the University of Halle, where he studied theology. Böeckh transferred from theology to philology, and in 1807, established himself as Privatdozent in the University of Heidelberg. Shortly afterwards he was appointed professor extraordinarius, becoming professor two years later. In 1811 he went to the new Humboldt University at Berlin, where he took up appointment as professor of eloquence and classical literature. He remained there till his death. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin in 1814, and for a long time acted as its secretary.
He was a contemporary of J. Franz, E. Curtius, A. Kirchhoff and H. Röehl, who edited much of his work and to whom Legrand refers in his five articles. Boeckh was a prolific writer, but the important work referred by Legrand is ‘Sur le culte d’Isis a Trezene. CIG, 1184’. [which translated means “about the cult of Isis at Trezene”] and Pindar.
In Berlin, August Boeckh did important work on Greek poetry, particularly Pindar, but established on a firm footing the study of Greek private and public economy. Legrand refers to Pindar in his articles. From 1806 until his death, Böeckh’s literary activity was unceasing. One of his principal works was an edition of Pindar, the first volume of which (1811) contains the text of the Epinician odes; a treatise, De Metris Pindari, in three books; and Notae Criticae: the second (1819) contains the Scholia; and part ii. of volume ii. (1821) contains a Latin translation, a commentary, the fragments and indices. It was for a long time the most complete edition of Pindar.
Böeckh published an edition of the Antigone of Sophocles (1843) with a poetical translation and essays. An early and important work on the Greek tragedians is his Graecae Tragoediae Principum … num ea quae supersunt et genuine omnia sint et forma primitive servata (1808).
(Sources: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/71211/August-Boeckh This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Böeckh, Philipp August”. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This work in turn cites: Sachse, Erinnerungen an August Böeckh (1868). Stark, in the Verhandlungen den Würzburger Philologensammlung (1868). Max Hoffmann, August Böeckh (1901) and Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia] 28. Chandler, Richard. [Richard Chandler was born in 1738 Elson, Hampshire in England and died on 9 February 1810 in Tylehurst, in Berkshire. He was an English antiquarian, educated at Winchester and at Queen’s College, Oxford, and Magdalen College, Oxford.
His first work consisted of fragments from the minor Greek poets, with notes (Elegiaca Graeca, 1759); and in 1763 he published an edition of the inscriptions among the Arundel marbles, Marmora Oxoniensia, with a Latin translation, and a number of suggestions for supplying the lacunae.
In 1764 he was introduced to the Society of Dilettanti by Robert Wood, who wrote the Ruins of Palmyra. Chandler was sent by the Society, accompanied by Nicholas Revett, an architect, and William Pars, a painter, to explore the antiquities of Ionia and Greece (1764-1766). The Society’s brief, drawn up on 17 May 1764 was that the travellers make Smyrna their headquarters, and from there “..to make excursions to the several remains of antiquity in that neighbourhood; to make exact plans and measurements, to make accurate drawings of the bas-reliefs and ornaments, copying all the inscriptions you shall meet with, and keeping minute diaries.”
Having explored numerous sites in Anatolia and Ionian Islands, they continued to Athens, where they purchased fragments of sculpture from the Parthenon: “We purchased two fine fragments of the frieze which we found inserted over the doorways in the town, and were presented with a beautiful trunk which had fallen from the metopes, and lay neglected in the garden of a Turk”.
Following the completion of the Society’s brief, their work, the Ionian Antiquities in two magnificent folios, was published by the Dilettanti in 1769. Later, Chandler’s record of the tour, Travels in Greece, or an Account of a Tour Made at the Expense of the Society Of Dillettanti (1776).
Other works by Chandler were Inscriptiones Antiquae pleraeque nondum editae (Oxford, 1774); Travels in Asia Minor (1775); Travels in Greece (1776); History of Ilium (1803), in which he asserted the accuracy of Homer’s geography. His Life of Bishop Waynflete, Lord High Chancellor to Henry VI, appeared in 1811.
A complete edition (with notes by Nicholas Revett) of the Travels in Asia Minor and Greece was published by R. Churton (Oxford, 1825), with an Account of the Author.
Richard Chandler said he climbed to the top of the Acropolis at Troizen with difficulty and with the help of a ‘Greek servant and a sailor’. Members of the 2012-2013 team climbed it and once there they found it pretty well as Chandler described it. Most of the ground had been built over later.
W. W. Wroth, ‘Chandler, Richard (bap. 1737, d. 1810)’, rev. R. D. E. Eagles, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006, accessed 28 Dec 2008
Some of his correspondence is in the Magdalene archives.
(This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.)]
29. C16, 1183.
30. Bull de Corresp. Hellenique XV11.
31. Le Bas-Fourcart n 158.
32. Smith, Dict. Of Biography; Fabrius, Bibl graeca.
33. Thucyd., 1,115; IV, 21.
34. Polyaen, 11, 29 suiv.
35. Frontin Julius, Strategums, Book III, 6, 7. [ Julius Frontinus A book on Military Strategies for ancient times. From page 3 Book 1‘Since I alone of those interested in military science have undertaken to reduce its rules to system, 2 and since I seem to have fulfilled that purpose, so far as pains on my part could accomplish it, I still feel under obligation, in order to complete the task I have begun, to summarize in convenient sketches the adroit operations of generals, which the Greeks embrace under the one name strategemata. For in this way commanders will be furnished with specimens of wisdom and foresight, which will serve to foster their own power of conceiving and executing like deeds. There will result the added advantage that a general will not fear the issue of his own stratagem, if he compares it with experiments already successfully made… Types of stratagems for the guidance of a commander in matters to be attended to before battle:
I. On concealing one’s plans.
II. On finding out the enemy’s plans.
III. On determining the character of the war.
IV. On leading an army through places infested by the enemy.
V. On escaping from difficult situations.
VI. On laying and meeting ambushes while on the march.
VII. How to conceal the absence of the things we lack, or to supply substitutes for them.
VIII. On distracting the attention of the enemy.
IX. On quelling a mutiny of soldiers.
X. How to check an unseasonable demand for battle.
XI. How to arouse an army’s enthusiasm for battle.
XII. On dispelling the fears inspired in soldiers by adverse omens.
36. Diod, XIX 54; XIX 64; XIX 74.
37. Plut Dem 25; Plut Cleomen, 19.
38. Chremonide 266-261.
39. Soldats d’Aratus 243.
40. Demetrios 11 (4).
41. M. Mylonaus BCH, X, pps. 136, 142.
42. Baunack. (Stud., 11-63)
43. Prellwitz (Argiv. Inschr 175 dans la collection de Collitz) [which translated means Argiv. Inscription 175 from the collection of Collitz]. [Hermann Collitz, Ph. D. (1855-1935) was an eminent German historical linguist and Indo-Europeanist, who spent much of his career in the United States. He received the doctorate in 1878 at the University of Göttingen with a dissertation on The Emergence of the Indo-Iranian Palatal Series (German: Die Entstehung der indoiranischen Palatalreihe), and his 1885 Habilitation degree at the University of Halle for The Inflection of Nouns with Threefold Gradation in Old Indic and in Greek: the Cases of the Singular (German: Die Flexion der Nomina mit dreifacher Stammabstufung im Altindischen und im Griechischen – Die Casus des Singular).
His main works were:
Sammlung der griechischen Dialektinschriften (1884-1909; with Bechtel);
Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der griechischen Dialekte (1895); Die neueste Sprachforschung (1886). From Wikipedia]
44. Lycurg, in Leocrat, 42, Diod XVIII, 11.
45. CIA, 11,322.
46. Polyb., 11, 44, Aratus 35.
47. BCH, XII, pps 315-323. Homolle, Deux bas-reliefs de Delos. [which translated means “Two bas-reliefs of Delos”].
48. L’honneur de Zenodotos CIG, 106. [which translated means “the honor of Zenodotos”] 49. Cassandre.
50. Stephanus, Byzantius s.v.
51. BCH, 1891, p.352. et suiv.
52. Boeckh. Sur le culte d’Isis a Trezene. CIG, 1184. [this translated means “about the cult of Isis at Trezene”].
53. de livadie. CIL, 111, p. 841.
54. Eph. Epigr., V, p 91 Geronthrae fragment; Eph. Epigr., IV, p 180 Thebes fragment.
55. Bull de Corresp Hellenquie XVII.
56. BCH, X, 1.11-12 Grande Mere.
57. Le Bas 389.
58. Fourcart, Assoc relig., No. 46, 1, 33; No. 4,5,27.
59. Aristide, Aelius. I, p.411.
60. Pherecr., dans Phot, Lexic.
1897 Philip Ernest Legrand Excavations of Troizen: Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 21, 1897. pp. 543-551. Cite this document: Philip Ernest Legrand. Excavations Troezen. In: Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 21, 1897. pp. 543-551. doi: 10.3406/bch.1897.3552
1. Paul Perdrizet [Known as the first to recognise the site of Argolis. ‘Situated at the coast four kilometres West of the Strymona delta, the ancient city of Argilos occupies a hill called « Palaiokastro ». The hill, culminating in an acropolis at an altitude of 80 m. high, is naturally protected by ravines on its West and North sides, while its Southeastern side gently slopes down towards the sea. The site of Argilos was first recognized by P. Perdrizet in 1883, basing his identification on the writings of Herodotus, who says that when the Persians crossed the Strymona on their way towards Athens which they wished to conquer, the first city they encountered was Argilos. The site was revisited by P. Collart and P. Devambez in 1930, but no excavation took place. At the end of the 70’s, a few tombs belonging to the necropolis of Argilos were uncovered by the Greek archaeological service. Systematic research only began in 1992 by a joint Greek-Canadian team.’ (Source: http://www.argilos.org/presentation.html)] 2. DCII 1892 p.165-174. 1893 pps.84-120 and 626-627.
3. Frazer, Sir James George III, p.274 V p.594 reference to Pausanias. [Sir James George Frazer FRSFRSE FBA OM (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. He has been considered one of the founding fathers of modern anthropology. The study of myth and religion became his areas of expertise. Except for visits to Italy and Greece, Frazer was not widely travelled. His prime sources of data were ancient histories and questionnaires mailed to missionaries and Imperial officials all over the globe. Frazer’s interest in social anthropology was aroused by reading E. B. Tylor’s Primitive Culture (1871) and encouraged by his friend, the biblical scholar William Robertson Smith, who was linking the Old Testament with early Hebrew folklore.
His most famous work, The Golden Bough (1890), documents and details similar magical and religious beliefs across the globe. Frazer posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science.
Frazer’s six volume commentary on the Greek traveller Pausanias’ description of Greece in the mid 2nd c. AD remains one of his most important works although archaeological excavations have added to our knowledge of Greece since his time. There is still value in his detailed historical and topographical discussions of different sites and his eyewitness accounts of Greece at the end of the 19th century. He wrote: Pausanias, and other Greek sketches (1900); and Description of Greece, by Pausanias (translation and commentary) (1897-) 6 volumes. Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_James_George_Frazer] 4. CIG 1183 BCH 1893 p.96 (No. XIII).
5. DCH, 1893, p.95.
6. BCH 1893, p110.
7. BCH 1893, p.86-93 (No. II, III, IV).
8. Mr Philos. The Ephor of the Greek Government.
1900 Philip Ernest Legrand Inscriptions Troezen: Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215. Cite this document: Philip Ernest Legrand. Troezen Inscriptions. In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215. doi: 10.3406/bch.1900.3406.
1. IWU XVII P.84 suiv.
2. BCH XVII p.85.
3. Kirchhoff. Studien zur Gesichte despray Alphabets. 4th edition P.17, 2-17H. [this translated means “studies about the formation of alphabets”].
4. CIGS 1. 1040.
5. Ahrens, Dial. Dor. P. Tt Kiichner-Blass, Grammatik 1890, 1, p. 109.
6. Roehl 284.
7. Mr Frankel- Mais M. Frankel.
9. Weisshaeupl, die Grabdeichte der griecs Anthologie, daus le Abhandlumgen des arch, epigr. Seminaers der Universitat Wien, VII, p, 55-61. [which translated means “The Grabdeichte of the Greek Anthology, from the treatises of arch., epigr. Seminars at the University of Vienna”].
10. Wide de sacris Traezeniorum. P. 19.
11. BCH XVIII, p. 202 on peut y joinder le numero 28, p. 110.
12. Bauden Kmaelor, p. 152 et planche XCII, No. 7.
13. Collignon, Histoire de la sculpture grecque II, p.448.
14. Loewy, Inschrifen griechischer Bildhauer PX. [which translated means “Inscriptions on Greek Sculptures”].
15. Overbeck,Johannes Adolph. Gesch der griech Plastik II, p. 112-113. It should be Gesichte der griech Plastik – meaning History of Greek Sculpture [Johannes Adolph Overbeck (born Antwerp 27 March 1826 – 8 November 1895) was a German archaeologist and art historian.
In 1848 Overbeck received his Ph.D. from the University of Bonn, where he was a Privatdocent from 1850 to 1853. In 1853 he became extraordinary professor of archaeology and dean of the archaeological collection at the University of Leipzig. He worked at Leipzig for the remainder of his career, and became an ordinary professor in 1859. Two of his better known students were Adolf Furtwängler (1853-1907) and Adolf Michaelis (1835-1910), both of whom Legrand uses as references in his articles. He helped direct the Archaeological Institute in Berlin (1874-1895).
Overbeck was a specialist of Greek Kunstmythologie (mythological art) in the field of archaeology. One of his earliest publications was an important work on Pompeii which ran to several editions, and in 1884 with August Mau (1840-1909), he published a book about Pompeii and its works of art, titled Pompeji in seinen Gebäuden, Alterthümern und Kunstwerken.
He rarely visited archaeological sites, preferring to write about them second hand. Overbeck’s devotion was mainly to the lecture pulpit, and there he made his most noteworthy contributionsHe sought to improve the life of students in other ways as well by establishing a reading room and infirmary. Selected writings: Pompeii, Leipzig 1855; Geschichte der Griechischen Plastik (History of Greek sculpture), Two volumes, Leipzig 1857/58; Die archäologische Sammlung der Universität Leipzig (The Archaeological Collection of the University of Leipzig), Leipzig 1859; Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den Griechen (The Ancient Manuscript Sources on the History of Greek Fine Arts), Leipzig 1868; Griechische Kunstmythologie (Greek Art-mythology), Three volumes, Leipzig 1871/89; Atlas, Leipzig 1872/87; Pompeji in seinen Gebäuden, Alterthümern und Kunstwerken (Inside Pompeii’s Buildings, Antiquities and Works of Art), with August Mau (1884) (Source Wikipedia)] 16. BCH XXI p. 543 suiv 1893.
17. BCH 1893 P.102 No. XXIV.
18. Svoboda, die griech Volksbeschlusse, p. 87-94. [which translated means “the Greek national conclusions”].
19. BCH XVII, p110, No. XXVIII.
20. BCH XVII p.109.
21. BCH 1893, p.120 XXVIII.
22. Michaelis, Adolf CIA IV 2 986 Arch Zeitung 1867.[ Adolf Michaelis (born Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein June 22, 1835 – died Strasbourg August 12, 1910) was a German classical scholar, a professor of art history at the University of Strasbourg from 1872, who helped establish the connoisseurship of Ancient Greek sculpture and Roman sculpture on their modern footing. Michaelis pioneered in supplementing his descriptions with sketches. Michaelis was the nephew of Otto Jahn, who introduced scientific philological method into classical archaeology; Jahn first guided his nephew’s interest in the classics. After Jahn’s death, Michaelis produced in 1880 a second edition of Jahn’s scholarly presentation of an excerpt of Pausanias’ description of Greece, Arx Athenarum a Pausania Descripta, offering the Greek text with Latin introduction and notes. The title was a modest understatement: Jahn collected all the classical references to the Acropolis of Athens and all the surviving inscriptions, and incorporated them into a history woven from classical sources. In the 1880 edition, Michaelis added forty plates of site plans, drawings and scholarly restorations of buildings and monuments, as well as engravings of sculpture, terracottas and coins illustrating the cult practices and deities honoured on Arx Athenarum, “Athena’s hill”.
Michaelis read classical philology and archaeology at the University of Leipzig, where he attended the classes of Johannes Overbeck (1826–1895), an expert on Pompeii whose emphasis on written sources for documenting Greek art was influential in formulating Michaelis’ approach to antiquities and whose corpus of mythological representations in Greek art, Griechische Kunstmythologie, begun in 1871, helped spark Michaelis’ own compilation of antiquities in English collections.
Michaelis pursued further studies in Berlin, then returned to Kiel to work on Horace. A trip to Rome in 1857 introduced him to the circle of scholars at the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (The German Archaeological Institute), on whose fellowship he travelled to Greece with Alexander Conze in 1859-60. Later he would chronicle its history: Geschichte des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 1829-1879 (Berlin 1879). In 1872, following the publication of his monograph on the Parthenon] he accepted the chair for Classical Archaeology at the recently established University of Strasbourg, where he created a department of archaeology supported by an archaeological library. From 1894 until 1899, he was also administrator of the Egyptian collection at the University of Strasbourg.
Michaelis summed up his knowledge in 1906 with his Die archäologischen Entdeckungen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, one of the first historiographies of the development in classical archaeology that had taken place during the nineteenth century; it follows in detail the archaeological expeditions, many of them undertaken by German institutions, with illustrations and site plans, ending with an overview of the older archaeology and the conditions of new views.
The work, familiarly referred to as “Jahn-Michaelis”, remains in the active scholarly repertory: a fourth edition with four added plates was edited by E. Thiersch, G. Ph. Stevens, and A. Oikonomides. (Chicago: Ares), 1976. ISBN 0-89005-078-3.
His journals of this trip and a later one in 1886 have been edited by Hans von Steuben, Archäologische Reisen in Griechenland 1860 und 1886. (Möhnesee) 2004. ISBN 3-933925-47-9.
Der Parthenon. Leipzig, 1870-71.
Frédéric Colin, “Comment la création d’une ‘bibliothèque de papyrus’ à Strasbourg compensa la perte des manuscrits précieux brûlés dans le siège de 1870″, La revue de la BNU, 2, p. 24-47.
Translated as A Century of Archaeological Discoveries (London 1908). The second German edition, 1908, appeared under the title Ein Jahrhundert kunstarchäologischer Entdeckungen.
Source Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
23. Mittheil 4th 1898 p.20 (Blinkenberg) P. 17-18
24. Etymol 725, 25.
25. Dittenberger, Sylloge 2 No. 255 Ligues 16-17.
26. Colleague of Legrand- M Holleaux.
27. Niese, Gesichte der griech und makedon Staaten 11, p. 450, No. 5. [this translated means “Visions of the Greek and Macedonian States”].
28. A Kynaitha (Polyb., IV 18 2-4).
29. BCH IV 304 et 311 note 2.
30. Rhode p.30-301.
31. Wilamowitz die Amphietgonie con Kalaureia, dan les Nachrichten de Gottigen 1896, p. 158 suiv. [Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 – 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist. Wilamowitz, as he is known in scholarly circles, was a renowned authority on Ancient Greece and its literature. During his presidency of the Prussian Academy, Wilamowitz achieved the continuation of August Böckh’s and Adolf Kirchhoff’s publication series, the Inscriptiones Graecae. Wilamowitz had a formative influence on the further development of that project, which he directed until his death. Wilamowitz tried to discredit Pausanias as a purveyor of literature quoted at second-hand, who he suggested, had not actually visited most of the places he described. Habicht 1985, describes an embarrassing episode in which Wilamowitz was led astray by misreading Pausanias, in front of an august party of travellers, in 1873, and attributes to it Wilamowitz’ lifelong antipathy and distrust of Pausanias. He published Griechische Literatur des Altertums; Einleitung in die griechische Tragödie; Homerische Untersuchungen (1884); Die Ilias und Homer (1916); Hellenistische Dichtung (1924) Erinnerungen 1848-1914. Verlag von K. F. Koehler, Leipzig 1928. (Memoirs) Source Wikipedia] 32. Cavvadias Fouilles de Epidaure p. 107 No. 245. [Note that Cavvadias has also been shown spelt Kavvadias by Legrand].
33. Prott v ol p.37.
1905 Philip Ernest Legrand Antiques Troezen; notes topography
In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 29, 1905. pp. 269-318.
Cite this document: Philip Ernest Legrand. Antiques Troezen; notes topography. In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 29, 1905. pp. 269-318. doi: 10.3406/bch.1905.3303.
1. Fourmont (1729). [Michel Fourmont (1690–1746), was a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and professor of the Syriac language in the Royal College, and was sent by the government to copy inscriptions in Greece. Michel Fourmont is remembered for the destruction of ancient Sparta.
Fourmont records in 1730:
For a month now, despite illness, I have been engaged with thirty workmen in the entire destruction of Sparta; not a day passes but I find something, and on some I have found up to twenty inscriptions. You understand, Monsieur, with what great joy, and with what fatigue, I have recovered such a great quantity of marbles. . ..
If by overturning its walls and temples, if by not leaving one stone on another in the smallest of its sacella, its place will be unknown in the future, 1 at least have something by which to recognise it, and that is something. I have only this means to render my voyage in the Morea illustrious, which otherwise would have been entirely useless, which would have suited neither France, nor me.
I am becoming a barbarian in the midst of Greece; this place is not the abode of the Muses, ignorance has driven them out, and it is that which makes me regret France, whither they have retreated. I should have liked to have more time to bring them at least more than bare nourishment, but the orders 1 have just received oblige me to finish.
Edward Dodwell on his later visit to Sparta in 1801 reported that Fourmont was still remembered as ordering the defacement of inscriptions he had just recorded.” Source Wikipedia]
2. Petrus Joannes Olivarius-Pompomus Mela (1511).
3. Bibliotheque Nationale, Noivelles acquisitions francaises, 1892, f 450 suiv.
4. Le Chevalier Voyage de Troade.
5. Chandler, Richard (trad franc. 1806, III, p. 233 suiv.
6. Gell,Sir William. Interinary of Greece, Argolis. P.120 suiv. [Sir William Gell (born at Hopton Derbyshire, 1 April 1777 – 4 February 1836) was an English classical archaeologist and illustrator, and antiquarian. The Gell family was one of the oldest families in England with a tradition of service in the Army, Navy, Parliament and the Church going back to 1209, in the reign of King John. His great grandfather was the parliamentarian Sir John Gell and his uncle was Admiral John Gell. Gell was educated at Derby School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He matriculated there in 1793, took a BA degree in 1798 and an MA in 1804, and was
From 1804 to 1806 he travelled in Greece and the neighbouring islands. He was in 1807 elected a Member of the Society of Dilettanti and a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1811 the Society of Dilettanti commissioned him to explore Greece and Asia Minor. These travels resulted in several publications, e.g. Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca and Itinerary of Greece, with a Commentary on Pausanias and Strabo. With these publications he achieved fame in the scholarly circles as a classical topographer. From 1820 until his death, he resided in Rome, where he painted.
Gell died at Naples in 1836 and was buried in the English Cemetery, Naples. His numerous drawings of classical ruins and localities, executed with great detail and exactness, are preserved in the British Museum. His topographical works became recognised text-books at a time when Greece and even Italy were but superficially known to English travellers. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries of London, and a member of the Institute of France and the Royal Academy in Berlin.
His best-known work is Pompeiana; the Topography, Edifices and, Ornaments of Pompeii, published between 1817 and 1832, in the first part of which he was assisted by J. P. Gandy. His publications include Topography of Troy (1804), Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca (1807), Itinerary of Greece (1810), Itinerary of the Morea (1817), and other works. With John Peter Gandy (later Deering) he published Pompeiana (1817), and later (1832) Pompeiana: the Topography, Ornaments, etc., showing the results of excavations at Pompeii since 1819. Pompeiana; the Topography, Edifices and, Ornaments of Pompeii was followed in 1834 by the Topography of Rome and its Vicinity. He wrote also Topography of Troy and its Vicinity (1804); Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca (1807); Itinerary of Greece, with a Commentary on Pausanias and Strabo (1810); and Itinerary of the Morea (1816). He is, together with his friends Edward Dodwell and Keppel Richard Craven, by some modern scholars seen as the founder of the study of the historical topography of the hinterland of Rome. His works and notebooks proved very valuable for the topographical studies done by Thomas Ashby at the beginning of the 20th century.
A Tour in the Lakes Made in 1797, [Edited by W. Rollinson, published 1986] The Topography of Troy and its vicinity illustrated and explained by drawings and descriptions etc.. London, 1804
The Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca. London, 1807
The Itinerary of Greece, with a commentary on Pausanias and Strabo, and an account of the Monuments of Antiquity at present existing in that country, compiled in the years 1801, 2, 5, 6 etc.. London, 1810. [2nd ed. containing a hundred routes in Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, 1827] The Itinerary of the Morea, being a description of the Routes of that Peninsula. London, 1817
Vievs in Barbary – taken in 1813. London, 1815
Pompeiana. The Topography of Edifices and Ornaments of Pompeii. 2 vols. London, 1817-8. [New ed. 1824. Further edition by Gell alone incorporating the results of latest excavations. London 1832 and 1852] Gell, William. The Itinerary of Greece, containing one hundred routes in Attica, Boetia etc, London, 1819.
Narrative of a Journey in the Morea. London, 1823
Le Mura di Roma disegnate sa Sir W. Gell, illustrates con testo note da A. Nibby. Rome, 1820
Probestücke von Städtemauern des alten Griechenlands … Aus dem Englischen übersetzt. Munich, 1831
The Topography of Rome and its Vicinity with Map”. 2 vols. London, 1834. [Rev. and enlarged by Edward Henry Banbury. London 1846] Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta de’ dintorni di Roma secondo le osservazione di Sir W. Gell e del professore A. Nibby. Rome 1837 [2nd ed. 1848]
Gell of Hopton Hall, Rotherham web, accessed 4 October 2008
Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). “Gell, William”. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Wroth, W. W. & Thompson, J. – Gell, Sir William (1777–1836), classical archaeologist and traveller in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004)
London Gazette: no. 16898. p. 1007. 14 May 1814. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. -“Roman Topography and the Prism of Sir William Gell”, in Haselberger, L. & J. Humphrey (eds.) Imaging Ancient Rome: Documentation, Visualization, Imagination. Portsmouth, RI, 2006, p. 296
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Sir_William_Gell.aspx [A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture | 2000 | JAMES STEVENS CURL | Copyright]
7. Itinerary of Moree p.105.
8. Dodwell. (A Classical Topographical Tour through Greece), II, p. 267 suiv. [Edward Dodwell (1767 – 13 May 1832) was an Irish painter, traveller and a writer on archaeology. He was born in Ireland and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.
Dodwell travelled from 1801 to 1806 in Greece, and spent the rest of his life for the most part in Italy, at Naples, and Rome. He died at Rome from the effects of an illness contracted in 1830 during a visit of exploration to the Sabine Mountains. Dodwell published A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (1819), of which a German translation appeared in 1821; Views in Greece, with thirty colored plates (1821); and Views and Descriptions of Cyclopian or Pelasgic Remains in Italy and Greece (London and Paris, with French text, 1834). Legrand refers to Dodwell’s A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (1819),
References: Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). “Dodwell, Edward”. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.] 9. Pouqueville. Voyage de la Grece V p.249 suiv.
10. Leake, William Martin. Travels in Moree II, p. 447 suiv. [William Martin Leake, FRS (born London, 14 January 1777 –died Brighton, 6 January 1860. 6 January 1860), was a British antiquarian and topographer. Completing his education at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Regiment of Artillery in 1794. After four years in the West Indies as lieutenant of marine artillery, he was promoted to captain, and sent in 1799 by the government to Constantinople to train the forces of the Ottoman Empire in the use of artillery. The British Empire was supporting the Ottoman in its defence against Napoleonic France. A journey through Asia Minor in 1800 to join the British fleet at Cyprus inspired him with an interest in antiquarian topography. In 1801, after travelling across the desert with the Turkish army to Egypt, he was, on the expulsion of the French, employed in surveying the valley of the Nile as far as the cataracts; but having sailed with the ship engaged to convey the Elgin marbles from Athens to England, he lost all his maps and observations when the vessel foundered off Cerigo in Greece.
After his arrival in England he was sent out to survey the coast of Albania and the Morea, with the view of assisting the Turks against attacks of the French from Italy. He took advantage of this to form a valuable collection of coins and inscriptions and to explore ancient sites. In 1807, during the war between Turkey and England, he was made prisoner at Salonica. Released the same year, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Ali Pasha of Ioannina, whose confidence he completely won, and with who he remained for more than a year as British representative.
In 1810 he was granted a yearly sum of £600 for his services in Turkey. In 1815 he retired from the army, in which he held the rank of colonel, devoting the remainder of his life to topographical and antiquarian studies. He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 13 April 1815.
The marbles he collected in Greece were presented to the British Museum. His bronzes, vases, gems and coins purchased by the University of Cambridge after his death, are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, received the honorary DCL at Oxford (1816), and was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and correspondent of the Institute of France. His Topography of Athens, the first attempt at a systematic treatment, long remained an authority.
Works: The topography of Athens: With some remarks on its antiquities (1821); Journal of a tour in Asia Minor, with comparative remarks on the ancient and modern geography of that country (1824); Travels in the Morea: With a map and plans (1830), and a supplement, Peloponnesiaca (1846); Travels in Northern Greece (1835) Numismata Hellenica (1854), followed by a supplement in 1859. (Source:Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)] 11. Prokesch-Osten. Denkwurdigkeiten III, p. 46 suiv. [Denkwurdigkeiten means thinking about worthy ties] 12. Fiedler. Reise, p. 285. [reise means travel].
13. L’expedition de Moree II, p. 171-172. [The Expedition scientifique de Moree and a map of the Peloponnesus. The French Expédition Scientifique de Morée was a large state-sponsored mission that involved the intense scrutiny of Greece through the instrumentalites of science and specifically the Dépôt de la Guerre. For Curtius, the greatest contribution of the Expédition to landscape archaeology (ancient chorography) lay not with the work of the art and architectural section under Blouet, but with the work of Puillon Boblaye in the section concerning the physical sciences and, in particular, the descriptive geography (note the overwhelming presence of the Great Divide in the partitioning of the Expédition. Source Wikipedia).
14. Puillon-Boblaye, Emile. Recherches, p.56. [Puillon-Boblaye was part of the Expedition de Moree] 15. Stackelberg. Vues pittireques I, p.15-16.
16. Frazer-Pausanias III, p.273 suiv, V p.593 suiv.
17. Potami, Kremastos.
18. Dodwell, Classical Tour II, p.408.
19. Omont. Missions archaelogiques francaises en Orient aux aux XVII et xviiie s., 2 vols.,Paris 1902.siecles, I, p.607. [Henri Auguste Omont, (born on September 15, 1857, died December 9, 1940), a French historian was a librarian, philologist. In 1881 he wrote a thesis De la ponctuation and was employed in the École Nationale des Chartes as an archivist. He:
• was general inspector in the Bibliothèque nationale de France.
• participated in the compilation of the “general catalogue of the manuscripts of the public libraries of France” (Alençon, Avranches, Louviers).
• undertook research on ancient libraries and the history of printing and books.
• elected as a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1900
• a member of the École Nationale des Chartes and Societé des Antiquaires de France. After his death his private library stayed with his widow till it was bought in 1948 by the Catholic University of Leuven, to reconstruct its collections after they were destroyed by the Germans for a second time. Omont’s library was divided with the partition of the university in 1970 in a Dutch speaking university that remained in Leuven and a French speaking one, that moved to a new university town called Louvain-la-Neuve.
• president in 1900 and 1921 of the Société libre d’agriculture, sciences, arts et belles-lettres de l’Eure.
Selected works: Bibliothèque de l’école des chartes (1883); Le fonds grec de la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris 1883); Notes sur les manuscrits grecs du British Museum, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 45 (1884), pp. 314–350; Notice sur un très ancien manuscrit grec en onciales des Epîtres de Paul, conservé à la Bibliothèque Nationale. (Paris 1889); Facsimilés des plus anciens manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotèque Nationale du IXe et XIVe siècle, Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes, (Paris 1891); Facsimilés des plus anciens manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotèque Nationale du IVe et XIIIe siècle, Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes, (Paris 1892); Très anciens manuscrits grecs bibliques et classiques de la Bibliotèque Nationale (Paris 1896); Catalogus codicum hagiographicorum graecorum Bibliothecae nationalis (Paris 1896); Catalogue des manuscrits grecs, latins, français et espagnols: et des portulans (Paris 1897); Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris 1898); Notice sur un très ancien manuscrit grec de l’évangile de saint Matthieu… (Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la bibliothèque nationale; vol. 36.) (Paris, 1901); Catalogue des manuscrits Ashburnham-Barrois récemment acquis par la Bibliothèque nationale (1901); Missions archéologiques françaises en Orient aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris, 1902); Notice sur les manuscrits originaux et autographes des Oeuvres de Brantôme offerts par Madame la baronne James de Rothschild à la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris, 1904); Psautier illustré (XIIIe siècle) : reproduction des 107 miniatures du Manuscrit latin (Paris 1906); Un nouveau manuscrit illustré de l’Apocalypse au IXe siècle. Notice du ms. latin nouv. acq. 1132 de la Bibliothèque nationale (1922); Nouvelles acquisitions du département des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale pendant les années 1924-1928 (1928); Bibliographie des travaux de M. Henri Omont. Paris: H. Didier ; Toulouse: Ed. Privat, 1933, XI-270 p. 1108 entries. “Pour le cinquantième anniversaire de l’entrée à la Bibliothèque nationale de m. Henri Omont, la bibliographie de ses travaux a été dressée par les conservateurs-adjoints et les bibliothécaires du Département des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale.” Edited by P. Lauer and E. A. van Moé; Chris Coppens a.o.(eds), Sapientia aedicavit sibi domum: Leuven University Library 1425-2000, Leuven 2005, p. 35.
Sources: Livret de l’École des Chartes 1821-1966; Catalogue général de la BnF; 193 contributions à la Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes; [Full text here of Missions Archaeologies Francois en Orient aux XVIII et XVIII siecles. http://amarfer.webs.ull.es/bibliografia.html] 20. BCH XVIII, p.99, 112114; 626 XXIV, p.207.
21. D’Antonio Veniero; d’Andrea Contarini [these two men appear to be part of the team of Venetians that went to Troizen.] Provediteur de Modon en 1494 (Hopf Chroniques Greco-romanes, p.381. and Provediteur d’Argos en 1519 op. e., p.384.
22. BCH XXIV, p. 201 en 1899 de nouvelles fouilles.
23. BCH XXIV, p.201.
24. Hitzig t. I. p.633.
25. BCH XVII, p.85.
26. Fougeres, Mantinee et L Arcadie orientale P.158-159.
27. M. Lambros BCH I, tab. 1, No.11 (-schlumberger, numismatique de l’orient latin, pl XII, No.35).
28. BCH 1900 p.182.
29. BCH XVII, 97-98.
30. BCH XVII, 93.
31. Pausanias 11, 31, 8; 11, 32, 3.
32. BCH XVII, 96.
33. BCH XVII, 86 suiv, pps.97-98,103.
34. Peloponnesos, 11, p.436.
35. Bulletin BCH XXI, p.543 et suiv., pl. XIII; pl. XXI, p.544.
36. BCH XXI pps. 543-545 et suiv, pl. XIII.
37. BCH XXI p.547-548.
38. BCH XXIV p.185.
39. BCH XXIV p. 185 and p.188.
40. Prott le Corpus du Peloponnese (IG, IV, 753 et Add., p.381) IG IV, 754.
41. BCH XXIV p.189, No. 8.
42. BCH XXI p.544.
43. Bouche-Leclereq, Hist de la divination III, pps.309-313
44. Wide, De Sacris Troezeniorum, pps. 73-75, 89.
45. IGA IV, 760.
46. Bas-Reinach, Mon. fig., pl44.
47. Ath.Mitth., XXI `1896 p.280- le’existence a Trezene d’un thiase de las Grande-Mere. IG, IV, 757. 1.10 suiv. [which translated means “The existence at Trezene of a thiasos of the Grande Mere”].
48. Winter, Typen. I, p.22, No. 4, p.103, No. 5-7; p.5, No. 28-29; p.59, No.5-7.
49. BCH Lechtat XV 1891 pps.27-28
50. Hippol., 1132; Hippol., 1197.
1906 New observations on a building in Troezen. Philip Ernest Legrand Bulletin Correspondence Hellenic Year 1906 Volume 30 Issue 30 pp. 52-57.
1. BCH XXI, pps. 543-546 suiv et XIII, XXIX, p.292 suiv.
2. BCH XXI, pl XIII, Voir le plan publie dans le Bulletin.
3. M. Studniezka. J’em prunta ce croqius a une letter de M Studniezka.
4. Recueil de Millin, les planches, 1,38, 11, 58.
5. M. Reinach. Le repertoire de vases, les planches, 1,56,6; II, 199,1; 235, 2; 329,5; II, 336,10; I, 201, 259; planche I, 56,6.
6. Dict des Antiquities., s.v. Lectus, pps. 1018-1019; sv Hercules fig. 3780; s.u. Coena p.1273. Fig 1690 sv Abaous, Cartibulum mensa.
7. Miss Ransom, Couches and Beds of the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans. P. 43 ct fig. 2, 22, 25, 27.
8. Antiquities de Myrina pl XL.
9. Monumenti, X, pl 18.
10. Sur une fries de l’Heroon de Gjolbaschi-Trysa (pl VII, VIII); pl VIII, A,5; plXX, A, 3-4; pl VII, A2 p.96-97.
11. Arch. Jahr b 1892, pl 1.
12. M.Wolters 1890, p.37 et la Maison de Megare pl 4.
13. Ransom, o.l. fig 9 (vases a figures rouges de Corneto).
14. Fig 28 Vase de Douris from British Museum.
15. Kallixenos (Athen., 196 a – 197c).
16. BCH XXI, p.546; XXIX, p.294.
17. Olympia II, p.19 and p. 58.
18. Pausanias, II, 31, 11.
19. Plutarch, ‘Moralia’, p. 146.
20. Strabo., X, 5, 11.
21. Dittenberger SIG, 616, not.37.
22. Homolle, BCH, XIV, p.507 et note 3
Welter Bibliography from Troizen und Kalaureia published 1941.
1. Pausanias Book II Corinth : II, 2.2 Graber des Neleus und des Sisyphos, in Nemea (Grab des Opheltes, ibid II, 15.3; in ibid II 29.8 Aigina (Grab des Aiakos) [English Translation Graves of Neleus and Sisyphos, in Nemea, grave of Opheltes, ibid II, 15.3; in ibid II 29.8 Aigina grave of Aiakos]; II, 8.5; II, 30.5; II, 30.4; II, 30.7; II, 30.6; II, 30.8; II, 30.9; II, 31.4 –k; II, 31.1-8; II, 31-32.6; II, 32.1ff; II, 32.7 Phyle der Greek writing to be translated in Troizen s.v; II, 32.8 Ausserhalb der Stadtmauer liegt das Heiligtum des Poseidon Phytalmios. Oberhalb des Tempels des Poseidon liegt der Heiligtum der Demeter Thesmophoros. [English Translation- Outside of the city wall is the Sanctuary of Poseidon Phytalmios. Above the Temple of Poseidon is the Sanctuary of the Demeter Thesmophoros]; II, 32.9; II, 32.10; II, 34.2; II. 34.6; II, 35.10; II, 36.3 In Didymoi bei Hermione liegt ein Heiligtum der der Demeter oberhalb eines Poseidon heiligtums (English Translation In Didymoi at Hermione there is Sanctuary of the Demeter above a Sanctuary of Poseidon); II, 36.9; II, 37.2; II, 37.5. [Pausanias – (/pɔːˈseɪniəs/; Ancient Greek: Παυσανίας Pausanías)] Pausanias, reputedly born in Lydia, was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century AD (as well as Greece he also visited Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Macedonia, Epirus) during height of Roman rule. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch, Joppa and Jerusalem, and to the River Jordan. In Egypt, he saw the Pyramids, and the temple Ammon. In Macedonia, it is alleged that he saw the tomb of Orpheus in Libethra. He travelled to Italy to Campania and Rome. He wrote about the ruins he saw at Troy, Alexandria Troas, and Mycenae. His most important work, Description of Greece [Periegesis Hellados], a sort of tourist guidebook, remains an invaluable text on ancient ruins. He lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.
The Description of Greece (Ἑλλάδος περιήγησις), survives in ten books which describe ancient Greece from first hand observations, each dedicated to some portion of Greece. Starting in Attica, the books describe Attica, Corinth, Laconia, Messenia, Elis, Achaia, Arcadia, Boetia, Phocis and Ozolian Locris. He omits some areas of Greece such as Crete. The first book seems to have been completed after 143 CE, but before 161CE. No event after 176CE is mentioned in the work.
Each book begins with a description of each city and a synopsis of its history followed by an account of the monuments in topographical order. The books contain information about local daily life, ceremonial rituals, legend and folklore, the artistic world from the glories of classical Greece, especially religious art and architecture. Some of the buildings and works which Pausanias described have since disappeared, but those that do survive are accurately described. Pausanias describes the religious art and architecture of Olympia and of Delphi. From the most secluded regions of Greece, he writes about all kinds of primitive images of the gods, holy relics, and many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, and the statues of Hesiod, Arion, Thamyris, and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia.
While Pausanias never doubts the existence of the gods and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them. His descriptions of monuments of art are plain and unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, and their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains. He is perfectly frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.
His writing includes the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them. His books are a crucial link between classical literature and modern archaeology.
Christian Habicht (Professor Emeritus Ancient History and a leading German historian of ancient Greece and an epigrapher in Ancient Greek) observed about Pausanias’ work “there is not a single mention of the author, not a single quotation from it, not a whisper before Stephanus Byzantius in the sixth century, and only two or three references to it throughout the Middle Ages”. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three 15th-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418; at his death in 1437 it went to the library of San Marco, Florence, then disappeared after 1500.
Archaeologists still find that Pausanias a reliable guide to the sites they are excavating or studying with modern technology such this current project. Sourcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ ; Pausanias und seine „Beschreibung Griechenlands“. Beck, München 1985. Pausanias (fl.c.160 CE): Description of Greece, Book II: Corinth. (Source: Ancient History Sourcebook: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pausanias-bk2.asp) ] 2. Pausanias III,. 25.5
3. Pausanias VIII, 3.1
4. Pausanias IX, 34.5; IX, 31.3
5. Stephanus Byzantius – sixth century BC
6. Herodot VIII 42.
7. Strabo II 6.14.
8. Mela II 3.
9. Fasti S.61, vgl.
10. Skylax, Peripl.51 IGA IV 724 line 24.
12. Bavarian Colonel Heydek in 1828.
13. Inscriptions Graecae Antiquissimae (IGA) IV 832 line 36; IV 2.76 …3; IV 757; IV 759.19; IV 748-755;
14. Thucydides IV 45.2 [in German Thukydides].
15. Philometer (163-146 BC).
16. Pouillon Boblaye (Recherches 59).
17. Curtius (Peloponnes II. 445). [In 1875, German archaeologist Ernst Curtius to excavated at the Greek site of Olympia, home of the ancient festival of Zeus. What he found there ultimately led to the re-institution of the Olympic Games.
Ernst Curtius was 24 years old when he first visited Olympia in 1838, working with the German scholar of Greek literature and art, Karl Otfried Muller. It wasn’t until 37 years later that he began the enormous task of completely excavating the entire sanctuary at Olympia. Curtius wasn’t the first person interested in Olympia. Written records about the athletic festivals included a report by the Greek traveller Pausanias, who attended the games about the year 174 AD. Antiquarian interest in the site started in 1723, when the French scholar Bernard de Montfaucon [1655-1741] failed to get enough funding to take it on. The German archaeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann [1717-1768] was also interested in it around 1768, but his funding also fell through. A small French expedition was undertaken in 1829, but it wasn’t until 1875 that all of the pieces were in place.
References: Ernst Curtius and Friedrich Adler. 1887-1897, five volumes. Die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalten Ausgrabungen. Berlin. This is the classic excavation report from Curtius’s 1875-1881 excavations.
E. Norman Gardiner. 1925. Olympia: Its History and Remains. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. This book is the first English discussion of both Curtius and Dorpfeld’s excavations at Olympia; and an absolute must-have classic.
Heinz Schobel. 1965. The Ancient Olympic Games. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, NJ. Written at the time of the Tokyo Olympics, this book attempts to set the history of the modern games in context with
http://archaeology.about.com/od/archaeologicalsite1/a/olympia.htm] 18. Bursian, Conrad. (Geographie Griechenlands II 93 [Geography of Greece II 93]). [Conrad Bursian (born Mutzschen in Saxony 14 November 1830 – 21 September 1883) was a German philologist and archaeologist. He entered university in 1847. He studied under Moritz Haupt and Otto Jahn until 1851, then spent six months in Berlin (chiefly to attend Böckh’s lectures), and completed his university studies at Leipzig (1852). He spent the next three years travelling in Belgium, France, Italy and Greece. In 1856 he became a Privatdozent, and in 1858 extraordinary professor at Leipzig; in 1861 professor of philology and archaeology at Tübingen; in 1864 professor of classical antiquities at Zürich; in 1869 at Jena, where he was director of the archaeological museum; and in 1874 at Munich, where he remained until his death.
His most important works are:
Geographie von Griechenland (1862-1872)
Beiträge zur Geschichte der klassischen Studien im Mittelalter (1873)
Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland (1883)
edition of Julius Firmicus Maternus’ De Errore Profanarum Religionum (1856)
edition of Seneca the Elder’s Suasoriae (1857).
19. Ross L. (Konigsreich II. 4 [King’s Travel II.4).
20. Bacchylides 17  58.
21. AM 20, 1895, 297.
22. AM 36, 1911, 99 Illustration 2 (Schede, aus Datscha, Knidische Halbinsel.)
23. AM 26, 1901, 247 ff Pictures/Figures 13 and 14.
24. Imhoof and Gardner, Numismatical Commentary on Pausanias 48 Picture/Figure MVIII.
25. Herodotus VIII 41.
26. Athens National Museum 242– eine romische kopie eines Hermes polykletischen Stils aus Troizen [English Translation: ‘Roman copy of a style of Hermes Polycleitos Troizen’].
27. BCH 16, 1892, 165 Pictures/Figures 2 and 17.
28. Furtwangler: Meisterwerke 424 [English Translation Masterpieces] 424.
29. Welter, Gabriel: Aigina; mit 87 abbildungen im text und einer übersichtskarte [English Translation : ‘with 87 illustrations in the text and available via an overview map’], Berlin, Gebr. Mann, 1938, p. 26.
30. Head, History Number 443, British Museum Catalogue Coins Peloponnesus Pictures/Figures 30 and 31).
31. Legrand, Philippe Ernest BCH 29, 1905, 281.
32. Greek writing to be translated- II 1935, p. 76 (referred to by Welter on p.18).
33. BCH 29, 1905 Die archaische Sima Figure or Illustration 8 and 27. (English Translation The archaic Sima). Go to S. 273 and then to BCH 30, 1915 p.86 for Douglas van Buren Greek fictile revetments (fictile coatings) in the Archaic Period (p 72 – 79 Illustrations 145 and 146.
34. BCH a O. 273.
35. Legrand BCH 29, 1905 p. 270-271.
36. O. Kern: Religion d. Griechen I. 112- Greek writing to be translated 1897, 2. Illustration 1-3; 1918, 1; 1905, 99; 1906, 89.
37. AJA 7, 1903, 270.
38. K.G. Fiedler, Reise durch alle Teile des Konigreichs griechland in den Jahren 1834-1837, I, 285 (English Translation ‘Travel through all parts of the Kingdom of Greece in the years 1834-1837’). ‘Bei Feierlichkeiten (der Bauern von Damala) wurden oft ein paar Hundert solcher Festlampchen pyramidenformig ubereinander gestellte und angezundet’. II Illustration 3 number 17 Illustration eines Lampchens. (English Translation- At ceremonies (the peasants of Damala) were often few hundred. They had fixed little lamps in the shape of pyramids one above the other).
39. Knidos: Newton: Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Knidos usw (etc), p. 378- 393ff-Halikarnassos : p. 327.
40. Akragas: Koldewey and Puchstein, Griech. Tempel 143; not.scavi (excavation note) 1926, p.142f; a.O. 89 not.scavi (excavation note) 1894, p.205 p.207.
41. P. Marconi: Agrigento 69- Gaggera bei Selinus. (Gaggera at Selinus).
42. Mon.Ant. 32 1927 p.369ff.
43. Tega Greek writing to be translated 1910, 274.
44. Gortyn: AA 1909, p.102-Athen Thesmorphorion auf der Pnyx.
45. Hesperia : 5 1936, p. 179f , Illustration 63- Die Kultverdordnung uber zugelassene Opfergaben im Heiligtum der Despione in Lykosoura fuhrt ol, Bilder, Lampen auf (Greek writing to be translated 1898, p.249). (English Translation The old regulations were used in the Sanctuary of Despoine in Lykosoura and these revealed pictures and oil lamps).
46. Sylloge, 939.(Dittenberger).
47. Lampen beim Nachfest der Thesmophorien: Aristoph Thesmoph 280.655 (English Translation Lamps for after the feast of Thesmophorien)
48. AJA 22, 1918, 212 Illustration 18. Da zu Kopf emit Kalathos-Lokale uner formungen korinth ist der Terrakotten des Typus (English Translation At the head of Kalathos location, there are formations over Corinth of the terracotta of Typus).
49. Winter, Typen I, 58.3.
50. Arg. Her II, 34 number 166 Figure 46.9.
51. Tiryns I, 88 number 170.
52. Aigina Museum; Korinth National Museum. 4407 aus dem Heraion von Perachora im National Museum Athens. (English Translation from the Heraion of Perachora in the National Museum of Athens).
53. BCH 32, 1908, 143 (Delos).
54. Clara Rhodes VI-VII 364 Illustration 113.
55.Tiryns I, 100 Illustration 36; I, 97 Illustration 30; I, 102.211.
56. Corinth IV 132 number 37 Illustration 57; 137 number 87 Illustration 61, Figure/Picture 10a.
57. Aigina Aphaia 382 number 92 Ringformer Aryballos.
58. G.A.S Snijder, Guttus and Verwandtes (and related others): Mnemosyne 1934, 8. Figure 4, number 16.
59. Massfunde (authoritative findings): Tiryns I, 103; I, 79ff.
60. Thera II, 192.
61. Blinkenberg and Kinch, Exploration of Rhodes 3- report 113f (Lindos). Aigina Aphaia 451, number 190.
62. AA 1932, 162, Kolonnahugel.
63. H. Goldman, Eutresis, p. 262.
64. Arg. Her. II, 101.
65. IG IV 122, XXIII.
66. IG IV 123, XLVIII.
67. FHG II 15.8 Hippys von Rhegion.
68. Herodotus 5.82.
69. IG IV 1588.
70. Gortys (VIII 28.1).
71. Sikyon (II 10.3).
72. Philius (II 13.5).
73. Hesych s.v. in Aigina Aischrologie.
74. Gruppe. Mythologue 453; 434 A 3.
75. IG IV 530.
76. IG IV 531, 414.
77. IG IV 751, 9.
78. BCH 21, 1987, 543ff 29, 1905, 292ff.
79. BCH 30, 1906, 52 dann Abb. (from the illustration) Sachs ges d. Wiss 30, 1914, 146ff.
80. JdI 32, 1917, 114- Frickenhause.
81. IG IV p. 771-772.
82. BCH 24, 1900, p.188; 1905, p.298.
83. AA 1938, 21 Illustration 14 mit 8 Abteilungen (with 8 sections).
84. AM 23, 1898, 20 Epidauros.
85. IG IV 986 mit 3 Abteilungen (with 3 sections).
86. AM 24, 1899, p.396.
87. IG IV S. 173.
88. Delos, Le Sanctuaire des dieux de Samothrace (English Translation The Sanctuary of the Gods of Samothrace), Illustration 5.62.
89. Strabo I, 2.18 p.59.
90. Podagra and Blahungen from (Plin. Nat. Hist. XXXI, 2.11; vitrov VIII 3.6; Athen II, 42a).
91. Theophrast. Hist, plant. IX, 18.11; Athen. I, 31c.
92. Plutarch. Quaest. Gr. 295 Athen I 31c.
93. Miss M. Farnsworth- with the help of Miss Farnsworth, an American Chemist, Welter had the water from the spring of Herakles analysed. Welter writes that ‘now the waters of this spring are diverted for the irrigation of the lemon orchards for the good of Kokkinia.’
94. [Greek writing to be translated] 3, 1917, Illustration S.33 and 44 (this is on page 37 of Welter).
95. IG IV 781.
96. E. Sukenik: Ancient Synagogues in Palestine and Greece 71. Figure 17a. Beth-Gebrin NN. Baute dieses Saule zu Ehren der Synagogue (built on this side to honour the synagogue), ibid 72.
97. BCH 56, 1932, p. 291 Figure 19 Einer Saule der Synagogue von Stobi (English Translation A column of Stobi).
98. Delos XVI Sanctuaire des Dieux de Samothrace 65 (The Sanctuary of the Gods of Samothrace).
99. IG III, 1122, Zeile 78 (line 78).
100. IG IV 790, 792.
101. IG IV 754 ‘Gymnasion des Hippolytos’ (Gymnasium of Hippolytos’.)
102. IG IV 832, 36.
103. Athen-National Museum Number 10800 dem Kopf Golddiadem (the head with the gold tiara or diadem).
104. IG IV 801.
105 Sir William Gell: Itinerary of Greece, p. 121.
106. L’expedition de Moree II, p.172,
107. IG IV 800 Inschrift (Inscription).
108. Priene 277 Illustration 283 Gymnasion in Priene (Gymnasium in Priene).Priene is an ancient Hellenistic city located just north of Miletus in Western Turkey.
109. Milet I, 9.94.
110. Ojh 15, 1912, Beibl. 196; ebd , 1915, Beibl. 279.
111. Zenob IV 20 referring to Demeter.
112. Roussel, Delos 293 and Plan.
113. Philostrat.vit.soph. II, 1.15
Writers from the Modern Era
From around the second century AD to the 1940s, a number of antiquarians, philologists, eminent classical scholars and teachers of ancient history, archaeologists, travellers, members of the Dilettante Society and writers, contributed to writing the history and archaeology of Troizen. From the 1730’s, the Dilettante Society funded a number of archaeological expeditions and grand tours and a scholarship fund for the purpose of supporting a student’s travel to Rome and Greece. It funded archaeological expeditions such as that of Richard Chandler, William Pars and Nicholas Revett, the results of which they published in Ionian Antiquities, a major influence on neo-Classicism in Britain.
The following quote gives an idea of the importance of the work created by these travellers/writers. Both Sir William Gell and Edward Dodwell feature in the bibliography in this section.
“The travellers of the early nineteenth century included not only learned or leisured aristocrats but also the new wealthy middle classes eager to take their families on a fashionable tour. Their interests are reflected in the numerous travel-books which were produced during the period. Written for the most part by antiquarians, artists or architects — but also occasionally by diplomats or military officers… at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a great many architects, artists and amateurs were in Greece measuring its monuments, investigating its topography and recording the customs and costumes of the people……..William Gell’s series of works, published between 1817 and 1823, provided important material for Greek topography. Edward Dodwell’s Views in Greece, published in 1821, included genre scenes, picturesque views and records of contemporary costume.”
(source: http://www.victorianweb.org/painting/orientalist/greece.html From the Classical Vision to the Emergence of Modern Greece (1979) Fani-Maria Tsigakou).
From page 211 Chapter 9 Landscape, Time, Topology: An Archaeological Account of Southern Argolid Greece Christopher L. Whitmore The Path to Damala (Envisioning Landscape: Situations and Standpoints in Archaeology and Heritage. Editors Dan Hicks, Laura McAtackney, and Graham Fairclough. Left Coast Press Inc. California USA first paperback edition 2009)
‘At some point between 1801 and 1806, Sir William Gell (1777-1836), an English diplomat, classical scholar and antiquarian, crossed the Adheres range by way of a path from Damala, near the ruins of Troizen. Along the way, Gell recorded distance between features worthy of observation with to the minute precision. Locales observed from afar were often situated with a compass bearing along the line of sight from a specific place along the path. Gell carried pocket compass and sextant, which he claims were often taken to be instruments of magic rather than measurement by locals (Gell 1823:352.) Gell also took time to sketch views along the way with pen and ink, for him sometimes a more suggestive and ‘accurate’ means of articulating ‘the face of the country’ (Gell1810: xiv).
In his Itinerary of Greece (1810), Gell juxtaposed select translations of Pausanias or Strabo with his own descriptions of a particular route.’
On page 106 of the book ‘5 Greeks and natives in south-east Italy: approaches to the archaeological evidence’ Edited by T C. Champion (Centre and Periphery Comparative Studies in Archaeology Ruth D. Whitehouse and John B. Wilkins), Troizen is mentioned thus: ‘ The city of Metapontion was situated some 40 km southwest of Taras, further round the Ionian Gulf. According to tradition it was founded by men from Achaia and Troizen in central Greece in 773 BC, but in this case the archaeological evidence does not support the traditional foundation date. In
fact the city on the sea shore was not established before about 650 BC.’
Martin Ostwald W. R. Kenan Professor Emeritus of Classics, Swarthmore College
Professor Emeritus of Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Socoety Vol. 151, NO. 1, March 2007 wrote in his paper (pages 118-119) on Michael H. Jameson,15 October 1924 – 18 August 2004, the Edward Clark Crossett Professor of Humanistic Studies Emeritus at Stanford University, ‘My expression of disbelief and doubt resulted in an invitation to come right over to his house (Jameson’s House) in Rosemont to join him in looking at the squeeze of a stone he had seen in a kapheneion in Troezen and copied the previous summer. After I had pored over the document for several hours, the rigor of his argument and his infectious enthusiasm convinced me that I was privileged to witness the discovery of a new document that would change our perception of a crucial point in Greek history, the events surrounding the battle of Salamis in 470 bce.
The excitement caused by this major discovery and the plethora of still unsolved problems it brought with it may be said to have started at a memorable colloquium held under Jameson’s leadership on 1 December 1960 in the office of Professor Homer Thompson at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Among the most lively participants were Professors Benjamin Merritt, A. E. Raubitschek, H. T. Wade-Gery, and Pierre Amandry. months after the publication of the editio princeps no fewer than thirty-two contributions from scholars all over the world, including four by Jameson himself. Even at this late point, a consensus cannot be said to have been reached. Most of the discrepancies between the decree and the literary traditions that, before 1960, formed the only bases for our knowledge of the historical events leading up to the battles of Artemisium and Salamis have been accounted for by N.G.L. Hammond, who believes that it was proposed by Themistocles in September 481bce, in preparation for the battles fought a year later. The decree thus becomes a further testimony of Themistocles’ foresight in strategic planning. His travels in the Argolid in 1950, the trip on which he also discovered the Themistocles Decree at Troezen, led Jameson to make two further significant contributions to our knowledge of Southern Greece.
There was universal agreement that the script was not contemporary with the events it described, but had been engraved some 150 years later, i.e., ca. 300
Bce. That the stele was found in Troezen and not in Athens could be explained by the refuge Troezenian women and children had found in Athens after the battle of Chaeroneia, in gratitude for which they set up, on their return home, a copy of
a famous monument to commemorate the reception that their forebears had received in Athens in the past, namely, at the time of the evacuation of Athens at the approach of the Persians in 480 bce (line 8). Unexpected new problems raised by the decree soon became evident The decree suggests that the battles of Artemisium and Salamis were part of one master plan devised in detail well before the events by
the strategic genius of Themistocles. The plan included the evacuation of women and children to Troezen and of old men and movable property to the island of Salamis even before Artemisium and Thermopylae. This runs counter to the narrative of Herodotus and Plutarch, who treat the evacuation as a helter-skelter emergency measure taken only after the defeat at Artemisium. On these and other points a scholarly controversy soon erupted, which had elicited within the first sixteen months after the publication of the editio princeps no fewer than thirty-two contributions from scholars all over the world, including four by Jameson himself.
Even at this late point, a consensus cannot be said to have been reached. Most of the discrepancies between the decree and the literary traditions that, before 1960, formed the only bases for our knowledge of the historical events leading up to the battles of Artemisium and Salamis have been accounted for by N.G.L. Hammond, who believes that it was proposed by Themistocles in September 481 bce, in
preparation for the battles fought a year later. The decree thus becomes a further testimony of Themistocles’ foresight in strategic planning. His travels in the Argolid in 1950, the trip on which he also discovered the Themistocles Decree at Troezen, led Jameson to make two further significant contributions to our knowledge of Southern Greece.’
S. Dow, “Bibliography of the Purported Themistokles Inscription from Troizen,”
CW 55 (January 1962): 105–08.
N.G.L. Hammond, “The Narrative of Herodotus VII and the Decree of Themistocles
at Troezen,” JHS 102 (1982): 75–93. See also Hammond’s fuller discussion in
CAH 4 (2nd ed., 1988), 540–56.
“Troizen and Halikarnassos in the Hellenistic Era,” in The Salmakis Inscription and Hellenistic Halikarnassos, ed. S. Isager and P. Pederson, 93–107.
For the editio princeps, see “A Decree of Themistokles from Troizen,” Hesperia
M. Cristofani, ed. writes: “The city, ca. 15 stadia from the coast of the Saronic Gulf, was situated on the N slope of the mountain anciently called Phorbantion. Its territory extended to the sea and included the island of Calauria, bordered on the W by Epidauros and on the SW by Hermione. Originally an Ionic city, Troizen was particularly bound to Athens, united by common traditional mythology concerning both the legend of the founding of the city and because one of its ancient princes may have been an ancestor of Theseus, the principal hero of Athens, whose son Hippolytos was particularly venerated at Troizen. Subjugated to the more powerful Argos, Troizen nevertheless attempted to sustain its own policies, entering the Peloponnesian League, and in 480 B.C. welcoming the Athenians in flight from Attica after the battle of Thermopylai. Reference to these events is found in a recently discovered inscription of the 3rd c. B.C., which is considered an ancient falsification of the 4th c. In the course of the Peloponnesian War Troizen was initially allied to Athens, and later to Sparta. The city, because of its favourable geographical position, enjoyed particular prosperity through the Roman period.
The principal monuments of the city, discovered by French archaeologists between 1890 and 1899, include the acropolis and the habitation centre that extended into the plain to the N. An encircling wall in polygonal masonry, descending from the acropolis, constituted the city’s defensive system. Not until the 3d c. B.C., with contributions of the citizens (Paus. 2.31), was there a defence wall, built in[This text is from: The Princeton encyclopaedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 13 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.]
From the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854. TROEZEN (Τροιζήν; also Τροιζήνη, Ptol. 3.16.12: Eth. Τροιζήνιος: the territory γῆ Τροιζηνία, Eur. Med. 683; ἡ Τροιζηνὶς γῆ, Thuc. 2.56), a city of Peloponnesus, whose territory formed the south-eastern corner of the district to which the name of Argolis was given at a later time. It stood at their distance of 15 stadia front the coast, in a fertile plain, which is described below. (Strabo. viii. p.373.) Few cities of Peloponnesus boasted of so remote an antiquity; and many of its legends are closely connected with those of Athens, and prove that its original population was of the Ionic race. According to the Troezenians themselves, their country was first called Oraea from the Egyptian Orus, and was next named Althepia from Althepus, the son of Poseidon and Leis, who was the daughter of Orus. In the reign of this king, Poseidon and Athena contended, as at Athens, for the land of the Troezenians, but, through the mediation of Zeus, they became the joint guardians of the country, Hence, says Pausanias, a trident and the head of Athena are represented on the ancient coins of Troezen. (Comp. Mionnet, Suppl. iv. p. 267.189.) Althepus was succeeded by Saron, who built a temple of the Saronian Artemis in a marshy place near the sea, which was hence called the Phoebaean marsh (Φοιβαία λίμνη), but was afterwards named Saronis, because Saron was buried in the ground belonging to the temple. The next kings mentioned are Hyperes and Anthas, who founded two cities, named Hypereia and Antheia. Aëtius, the son of Hyperes, inherited the kingdom of his father and uncle, and called one of the cities Poseidonias. In his reign, Troezen and Pittheus, who are called the sons of Pelops, and may be regarded as Achaean princes, settled in the country, and divided the power with Aëtius. But the Pelopidae son supplanted the earlier dynasty; and on the death of Troezen, Pittheus united the two Ionic settlements into one city, which he called Troezen after his brother. Pittheus was the grandfather of Thêseus by his daughter Aethra; and the great national hero of the Athenians was born and educated at Troezen. The close connection between the two states is also intimated by the legend that two important demi of Attica, Anaphlystus and Sphettus, derived their names from two sons of Troezen. (Paus. 2.30. § § 5–9.) Besides the ancient names of Troezen already specified, Stephanus B. (s. v. Τροιζήν) mentions Aphrodisias, Saronia, Poseidonias, Apollonias and Anthanis. Strabo likewise says (ix. p. 373) that Troezen was called Poseidonia from its being sacred to Poseidon.
At the time of the Trojan War Troezen was subject to Argos (Hom. Il. 2.561); and upon the conquest of the Peloponnesus by the Dorians, it received a Dorian colony from Argos. (Paus. 2.30.10.) The Dorian settlers appear to have been received on friendly terms by the ancient inhabitants, who continued to form the majority of the population; and although Troezen became a Doric city, it still retained its Ionic sympathies and traditions. At an early period Troezen was a powerful maritime state, as is shown by its founding the cities of Halicarnassus and Myndus in Caria. (Paus. 2.30.8; Hdt. 7.99; Strabo. viii. p.374.) The Troezenians also took part with the Achaeans in the foundation of Sybaris, but they were eventually driven out by the Achaeans. (Aristot. Pol. 5.3.) It has been conjectured with much probability that the expelled Troezenians may have been the chief founders of Poseidonia (Paestum), which Solinus calls a Doric colony, and to which they gave the ancient name of their own city in Peloponnesus. [PAESTUM]
In the Persian War the Troezenians took an active part. After the battle of Thermopylae, the harbour of Troezen was appointed as the place of rendezvous for the Grecian fleet (Hdt. 8.42); and when the Athenians were obliged to quit Attica upon the [p. 2.1235]approach of Xerxes, the majority of them took refuge at Troezen, where they were received with the greatest kindness by the semi-ionic population. (Hdt. 8.41; Plut. Them. 10.) The Troezenians sent 5 ships to Artemisium and Salamis, and 1000 men to Plataeae, and they also fought at the battle of Mycale. (Hdt. 8.1, 9.28, 102.) After the Persian war the friendly connection between Athens and Troezen appears to have continued; and during the greatness of the Athenian empire before the thirty years’ peace (B.C. 455) Troezen was an ally of Athens, and was apparently garrisoned by Athenian troops; but by this peace the Athenians were compelled to relinquish Troezen. (Thuc. 1.115, 4.45.) Before the Peloponnesian War the two states became estranged from one another; and the Troezenians, probably from hostility to Argos, entered into close alliance with the Lacedaemonians. In the Peloponnesian War the Troezenians remained the firm allies of Sparta, although their country, from its maritime situation and its proximity to Attica, was especially exposed to the ravages of the Athenian fleet. (Thuc. 2.56, 4.45.) In the Corinthian War, B.C. 394, the Troezenians fought upon the side of the Lacedaemonians (Xen. Hell. 4.2. 16); and again in B.C. 373 they are numbered among the allies of Sparta against Athens. (Xen. Hell. 6.2. 3) In the Macedonian period Troezen passed alternately into the hands of the contending powers. In B.C. 303 it was delivered, along with Argos, from the Macedonian yoke, by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but it soon became subject to Macedonia, and remained so till it was taken by the Spartan Cleonymus in B.C. 278. (Polyaen. Strat. 2.29.1; Frontin. Strat. 3.6.7.) Shortly afterwards it again became a Macedonian dependency; but it was united to the Achaean League by Aratus after he had liberated Corinth. (Paus. 2.8.5.) In the war between the Achaean League and the Spartans, it was taken by Cleomenes, in B.C. 223 (Plb. 2.52; Plut. Cleom. 19); but after the defeat of this monarch at Sellasia in B.C. 221, it was doubtless restored to the Achaeans. Of its subsequent history we have no information. It was a place of importance in the time of Strabo (viii. p.373), and in the second century of the Christian era it continued to possess a large number of public buildings, of which Pausanias has given a detailed account. (Paus. 2.31, 32.)
According to the description of Pausanias, the monuments of Troezen may be divided into three classes, those in the Agora and its neighbourhood, those in the sacred inclosure of Hippolytus, and those upon the Acropolis. The Agora seems to have been surrounded with stoae or colonnades, in which stood marble statues of the women and children who fled for refuge to Troezen at the time of the Persian invasion. In the centre of the Agora was a temple of Artemis Soteira, said to have been dedicated by Theseus, which contained altars of the infernal gods. Behind the temple stood the monument of Pittheus, the founder of the city, surmounted by three chairs of white marble, upon which he and two assessors are said to have administered justice. Not far from thence was the temple of the Muses, founded by Ardalus, a son of Hephaestus, where Pittheus himself was said to have learnt the art of discourse; and before the temple was an altar where sacrifices were offered to the Muses and to Sleep, the deity whom the Troezenians considered the most friendly to these goddesses.
Near the theatre was the temple of Artemis Lyceia, funded by Hippolytus. Before the temple there was the very stone upon which Orestes was purified by nine Troezenians. The so-called tent of Orestes, in which he took refuge before his expiation, stood in front of the temple of Apollo Thearius, which was the most ancient temple that Pausanias knew. The water used in the purification of Orestes was drawn from the sacred fountain Hippocrene, struck by the hoof of Pegasus. In the neighbourhood was a statue of Hermes Polygius, with a wild olive tree, and a temple of Zeus Soter, said to have been erected by Aëtius, one of the mythical kings of Troezen.
The sacred enclosure of Hippolytus occupied a large space, and was a most conspicuous object in the city. The Troezenians denied the truth of the ordinary story of his being dragged to death by his horses, but worshipped him as the constellation Auriga, and dedicated to him a spacious sanctuary, the foundation of which was ascribed to Diomede. He was worshipped with the greatest honours; and each virgin, before her marriage, dedicated a lock of her hair to him. (Eur. Hipp. 1424; Paus. 2.32.1.) The sacred enclosure contained, besides the temple of Hippolytus, one of Apollo Epibaterius, also dedicated by Diomede. On one side of the enclosure was the stadium of Hippolytus, and above it the temple of Aphrodite Calascopia, so called because Phaedra beheld from this spot Hippolytus as he exercised in the stadium. In the neighbourhood was shown the tomb of Phaedra, the monument of Hippolytus, and the house of the hero, with the fountain called the Herculean in front of it.
The Acropolis was crowned with the temple of Athena Polias or Sthenias; and upon the slope of the mountain was a sanctuary of Pan Lyterius, so called because lie put a stop to the plague. Lower down was the temple of Isis, built by the Halicarnassians, and also one of Aphrodite Ascraea.
The ruins of Troezen lie west of the village of Dhamalá. They consist only of pieces of wall of Hellenic masonry or of Roman brickwork, dispersed over the lower slopes of the height, upon which stood the Acropolis, and over the plain at its foot. The Acropolis occupied a rugged and lofty hill, commanding the plain below, and presenting one of the most extensive and striking prospects in Greece. There are in the plain several ruined churches, which probably mark the site of ancient temples; and several travellers have noticed the remains of the temple of Aphrodite Calascopia, overlooking the cavity formerly occupied by the stadium. The chief river of the plain flows by the ruins of Troezen, and is now called Potámni. It is the ancient Taurius, afterwards called Hyllicus (Paus. 2.32.7), fed by several streams, of which the most important was the Chrysorrhoas, flowing through the city, and which still preserved its water, when all the other streams had been dried up by a nine years’ drought. (Paus. 2.31.10.)
The territory of Troezen was bounded on the W. by that of Epidaurus, on the SW. by that of Hermione, and was surrounded on every other side by the sea. The most important part of the territory was the fertile maritime plain, in which Troezen stood, and which was bounded on the south by a range of mountains, terminating in the promontories Scyllaeum and Bucephala, the most easterly points of the Peloponnesus. [SCYLLAEUM] Above the promontory Scyllaeum, and nearly due E. of Troezen, was a large bay, protected by the island of [p. 2.1236] Calaureia, named Pogon, where the Grecian fleet was ordered to assemble before the battle of Salamis (Hdt. 8.42; Strabo. viii. p.373.) The porttown, which was named Celenderis (Paus. 2.32.9), appears to have stood at the western extremity of the bay of Pogon, where some ancient remains are found. The high rocky peninsula of Methana, which belonged to the territory of Troezen and is united to the mainland by a narrow isthmus, is described in a separate article. [METHANA] There were formerly two islands off the coast of Troezen, named Calaureia and Sphaeria (afterwards Hiera), which are now united by a narrow sandbank. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 442, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 56; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 431, seq.
Robert Graves in his The Greek Myths : 1 ( Penguin Books Ltd first published 1955) in Chapter 95 ‘The Birth Of Theseus’ b,e, f, and g, discusses the way in which the city Troizen came to be formed: ‘ On his (Aegus) way home he called at Corinth; and here Medea made him swear a solemn oath that he would shelter her from all enemies if she ever sought refuge at Athens, and undertook in return to procure him a son by magic. Next he visited Troezen, where his old comrades Pittheus and Troezen , sons of Pelops, had recently come from Pisa to share a kingdom with King Aetius. Aetius was the successor of his father Anthas, son of Poseidon and Alcuone who, having founded the cities Anthaea and Hyperea, had lately sailed off to found Halicarnassus in Caria. But Aetius seems to have enjoyed little power, because Pittheus, after Troezen’s death, united Anthaea and Hyperea into a single city, which he dedicated jointly to Athene and Poseidon, calling it Troezen. Paragraph e discusses Aegeus wanting to secretly rear his son in Troizen, if one were born to him and Aethra; the harbour of Troizen is mentioned in paragraph f, and in paragraph g, there is a description of Herakles dining at Troizen with Pittheus.’
Graves defines the word Troizen as a worn down form of trion hezomemon, the city of the three sitters.