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Bibliography for Troizen: Ancient Writers and Modern Writers



Archaeology Project


  1. Introduction
  2. Ancient Writers on Troizen






  1. Modern Writers who wrote about Troizen
  2. Biographical Information on Legrand and Welter
  3. Texts of Legrand and Welter with summaries of findings
  4. Legrand-Bibliography from articles published between 1893 and 1906
  5. Introduction

1.1 This document provides some information on the:

  • Ancient writers who refer to Troizen in their works and some of their work.
  • Modern writers who wrote about Troizen. In most cases these writer had been to Troizen.
  • Biographical Information on Philippe Ernest Legrand and Gabriel Welter.
  • Texts of  Philippe Ernest Legrand and Gabriel Welter

1.2 A Bibliography from the Legrand and Welter texts respectively is provided.

Ancient Writers on Troizen

2.1 Homer– Chapter 2 6..5.3 Troizen was first mentioned in Homer’s Illiad  and, due to its closeness to Athens, it flourished as a naval base. If one reads Homer, the map of classical Greece corresponds to the regions Homer includes in his Illiad. Authors are not clear just when Homer wrote the Illiad, but there seems to be a consensus that Homer composed it circa 700 BC.  Troizen in the period we now describe as classical Greece was a town of strategic significance.  Finds from the ancient city depict the rich nautical tradition of ancient Troizen. Homer tells us that Troizenians were part of the Argos contingent to go off to the Trojan Wars, this contingent coming under their commander Diomedes in eighty black ships. There were twenty – nine contingents of ships with men drawn from many parts of Greece.

Reference: The Illiad by Homer – originally translated by E V Rieu. Revised and updated by Peter Jones with D C H Rieu. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by Peter Jones. Penguin Books. 1950, and 2003. Introduction page ix.

2.2 Herodotus– Herodotus ( /hɨˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c.484 – 425 BC). He has been called the “Father of History”, and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative. Herodotus is credited as a Greek author of the first great narrative history produced in the ancient world, the History of the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote his history in 10 books.

The History of Herodotus – Nine Books -written 440BC Translated by George Rawlinson  (http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.html)

Book III, 59.9 et al– The Samians buy Hermione and give it in trust to Troizen ‘The Siphnians, however, were unable to understand the oracle, either at the time when it was given, or afterwards on the arrival of the Samians. For these last no sooner came to anchor off the island than they sent one of their vessels, with an ambassage on board, to the city. All ships in these early times were painted with vermilion; and this was what the Pythoness had meant when she told them to beware of danger “from a wooden host, and a herald in scarlet.” So the ambassadors came ashore and besought the Siphnians to lend them ten talents; but the Siphnians refused, whereupon the Samians began to plunder their lands. Tidings of this reached the Siphnians, who straightway sallied forth to save their crops; then a battle was fought, in which the Siphnians suffered defeat, and many of their number were cut off from the city by the Samians, after which these latter forced the Siphnians to give them a hundred talents.

With this money they bought of the Hermionians the island of Hydrea, off the coast of the Peloponnese, and this they gave in trust to the Troezenians, to keep for them, while they themselves went on to Crete, and founded the city of Cydonia.’

Book VII, 99 et al Troizen commits ships to the Athenian fleet for the Battle of Salamis ‘And now, the remainder of the Grecian sea-force, hearing that the fleet which had been at Artemisium, was come to Salamis, joined it at that island from Troezen- orders having been issued previously that the ships should muster at Pogon, the port of the Troezenians. The vessels collected were many more in number than those which had fought at Artemisium, and were furnished by more cities. The admiral was the same who had commanded before, to wit, Eurybiades, the son of Eurycleides, who was a Spartan, but not of the family of the kings: the city, however, which sent by far the greatest number of ships, and the best sailers, was Athens.’

Book VIII, 1 et al Role of the Greek naval ships ‘The Greeks, at a signal, brought the sterns of their ships together into a small compass, and turned their prows on every side towards the barbarians; after which, at a second signal, although inclosed within a narrow space, and closely pressed upon by the foe, yet they fell bravely to work, and captured thirty ships of the barbarians, at the same time taking prisoner Philaon, the son of Chersis, and brother of Gorgus king of Salamis, a man of much repute in the fleet. The first who made prize of a ship of the enemy was Lycomedes the son of Aeschreas, an Athenian, who was afterwards adjudged the meed of valour. Victory however was still doubtful when night came on, and put a stop to the combat. The Greeks sailed back to Artemisium; and the barbarians returned to Aphetae, much surprised at the result, which was far other than they had looked for. In this battle only one of the Greeks who fought on the side of the king deserted and joined his countrymen. This was Antidorus of Lemnos, whom the Athenians rewarded for his desertion by the present of a piece of land in Salamis….’

Book VIII, 41 et al Evacuation of the Athenian civilians to Troizen ‘So while the rest of the fleet lay to off this island, the Athenians cast anchor along their own coast. Immediately upon their arrival, proclamation was made that every Athenian should save his children and household as he best could; whereupon some sent their families to Egina, some to Salamis, but the greater number to Troezen. This removal was made with all possible haste, partly from a desire to obey the advice of the oracle, but still more for another reason. The Athenians say that they have in their Acropolis a huge serpent, which lives in the temple, and is the guardian of the whole place. Nor do they only say this, but, as if the serpent really dwelt there, every month they lay out its food, which consists of a honey-cake. Up to this time the honey-cake had always been consumed; but now it remained untouched. So the priestess told the people what had happened; whereupon they left Athens the more readily, since they believed that the goddess had already abandoned the citadel. As soon as all was removed, the Athenians sailed back to their station. And now, the remainder of the Grecian sea-force, hearing that the fleet which had been at Artemisium, was come to Salamis, joined it at that island from Troezen- orders having been issued previously that the ships should muster at Pogon, the port of the Troezenians. The vessels collected were many more in number than those which had fought at Artemisium, and were furnished by more cities. The admiral was the same who had commanded before, to wit, Eurybiades, the son of Eurycleides, who was a Spartan, but not of the family of the kings: the city, however, which sent by far the greatest number of ships, and the best sailers, was Athens.

Now these were the nations who composed the Grecian fleet. From the Peloponnese, the following- the Lacedaemonians with six, teen ships; the Corinthians with the same number as at Artemisium; the Sicyonians with fifteen; the Epidaurians with ten; the Troezenians with five; and the Hermionians with three. These were Dorians and Macedonians all of them (except those from Hermione), and had emigrated last from Erineus, Pindus, and Dryopis. The Hermionians were Dryopians, of the race which Hercules and the Malians drove out of the land now called Doris. Such were the Peloponnesian nations.’

Book VIII, 72 et al Building Fortifications ‘Orders were now given to stand out to sea; and the ships proceeded towards Salamis, and took up the stations to which they were directed, without let or hindrance from the enemy. The day, however, was too far spent for them to begin the battle, since night already approached: so they prepared to engage upon the morrow. The Greeks, meanwhile, were in great distress and alarm, more especially those of the Peloponnese, who were troubled that they had been kept at Salamis to fight on behalf of the Athenian territory, and feared that, if they should suffer defeat, they would be pent up and besieged in an island, while their own country was left unprotected.

The same night the land army of the barbarians began its march towards the Peloponnese, where, however, all that was possible had been done to prevent the enemy from forcing an entrance by land. As soon as ever news reached the Peloponnese of the death of Leonidas and his companions at Thermopylae, the inhabitants flocked together from the various cities, and encamped at the Isthmus, under the command of Cleombrotus, son of Anaxandridas, and brother of Leonidas. Here their first care was to block up the Scironian Way; after which it was determined in council to build a wall across the Isthmus. As the number assembled amounted to many tens of thousands, and there was not one who did not give himself to the work, it was soon finished. Stones, bricks, timber, baskets filled full of sand, were used in the building; and not a moment was lost by those who gave their aid; for they laboured without ceasing either by night or day.

Now the nations who gave their aid, and who had flocked in full force to the Isthmus, were the following: the Lacedaemonians, all the tribes of the Arcadians, the Eleans, the Corinthians, the Sicyonians, the Epidaurians, the Phliasians, the Troezenians, and the Hermionians. These all gave their aid, being greatly alarmed at the danger which threatened Greece. But the other inhabitants of the Peloponnese took no part in the matter; though the Olympic and Carneian festivals were now over.’

Book IX, 28 et al Committing Troops to the Battle of Plataea ‘The Greek army, therefore, which mustered at Plataea, counting light-armed as well as heavy-armed, was but eighteen hundred men short of one hundred and ten thousand; and this amount was exactly made up by the Thespians who were present in the camp; for eighteen hundred Thespians, being the whole number left, were likewise with the army; but these men were without arms. Such was the array of the Greek troops when they took post on the Asopus.’

Book IX, 31 et al The Battle of Plataea ‘The Greeks, on the other hand, were greatly emboldened by what had happened, seeing that they had not only stood their ground against the attacks of the horse, but had even compelled them to beat a retreat. They therefore placed the dead body of Masistius upon a cart, and paraded it along the ranks of the army. Now the body was a sight which well deserved to be gazed upon, being remarkable both for stature and for beauty; and it was to stop the soldiers from leaving their ranks to look at it, that they resolved to carry it round. After this the Greeks determined to quit the high ground and go nearer Plataea, as the land there seemed far more suitable for an encampment than the country about Erythrae, particularly because it was better supplied with water. To this place therefore, and more especially to a spring-head which was called Gargaphia, they considered that it would be best for them to remove, after which they might once more encamp in their order. So they took their arms, and proceeded along the slopes of Cithaeron, past Hysiae, to the territory of the Plataeans; and here they drew themselves up, nation by nation, close by the fountain Gargaphia, and the sacred precinct of the Hero Androcrates, partly along some hillocks of no great height, and partly upon the level of the plain.’

Book XIX, 102 et al The Battle of Plataea’ Thus spake the Tegeans; and the Athenians made reply as follows:- “We are not ignorant that our forces were gathered here, not for the purpose of speech-making, but for battle against the barbarian. Yet as the Tegeans have been pleased to bring into debate the exploits performed by our two nations, alike in carlier and in later times, we have no choice but to set before you the grounds on which we claim it as our heritage, deserved by our unchanging bravery, to be preferred above Arcadians. In the first place, then, those very Heraclidae, whose leader they boast to have slain at the Isthmus, and whom the other Greeks would not receive when they asked a refuge from the bondage wherewith they were threatened by the people of Mycinae, were given a shelter by us; and we brought down the insolence of Eurystheus, and helped to gain the victory over those who were at that time lords of the Peloponnese. Again, when the Argives led their troops with Polynices against Thebes, and were slain and refused burial, it is our boast that we went out against the Cadmeians, recovered the bodies, and buried them at Eleusis in our own territory. Another noble deed of ours was that against the Amazons, when they came from their seats upon the Thermodon, and poured their hosts into Attica; and in the Trojan war too we were not a whit behind any of the Greeks. But what boots it to speak of these ancient matters? A nation which was brave in those days might have grown cowardly since, and a nation of cowards then might now be valiant. Enough therefore of our ancient achievements. Had we performed no other exploit than that at Marathon- though in truth we have performed exploits as many and as noble as any of the Greeks- yet had we performed no other, we should deserve this privilege, and many a one beside. There we stood alone, and singly fought with the Persians; nay, and venturing on so dangerous a cast, we overcame the enemy, and conquered on that day forty and six nations! Does not this one achievement suffice to make good our title to the post we claim? Nevertheless, Lacedaemonians, as to strive concerning place at such a time as this is not right, we are ready to do as ye command, and to take our station at whatever part of the line, and face whatever nation ye think most expedient. Wheresoever ye place us, ’twill be our endeavour to behave as brave men. Only declare your will, and we shall at once obey you.” ‘

Book XIX, 105 et al Distinction At Plataea ‘The Persians, and the multitude with them, who fled to the wooden fortress, were able to ascend into the towers before the Lacedaemonians came up. Thus placed, they proceeded to strengthen the defences as well as they could; and when the Lacedaemonians arrived, a sharp fight took place at the rampart. So long as the Athenians were away, the barbarians kept off their assailants, and had much the best of the combat, since the Lacedaemonians were unskilled in the attack of walled places: but on the arrival of the Athenians, a more violent assault was made, and the wall was for a long time attacked with fury. In the end the valour of the Athenians and their perseverance prevailed- they gained the top of the wall, and, breaking a breach through it, enabled the Greeks to pour in. The first to enter here were the Tegeans, and they it was who plundered the tent of Mardonius; where among other booty the found the manger from which his horses ate, all made of solid brass, and well worth looking at. This manger was given by the Tegeans to the temple of Minerva Alea, while the remainder of their booty was brought into the common stock of the Greeks. As soon as the wall was broken down, the barbarians no longer kept together in any array, nor was there one among them who thought of making further resistance- in good truth, they were all half dead with fright, huddled as so many thousands were into so narrow and confined a space. With such tameness did they submit to be slaughtered by the Greeks, that of the 300,000 men who composed the army- omitting the 40,000 by whom Artabazus was accompanied in his flight- no more than 3000 outlived the battle.’

Such was the reply of the Athenians; and forthwith all the Lacedaemonian troops cried out with one voice, that the Athenians were worthier to have the left wing than the Arcadians. In this way were the Tegeans overcome; and the post was assigned to the Athenians.

2.3 Euripides– A Greek playwright Euripides Euripides (Greek: Εὐριπίδης) (c. 480 – 406 BC), was one of the three great tradegians of Classical Athens. He was born on Salamis Island. He wrote an Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus, son of Theseus. The play was first produced for the City Dionysia of Athens in 428 BC and won first prize as part of a trilogy.

The play is set in Troizen, a coastal town in the northeastern Peloponnese. Theseus, the king of Athens, is serving a year’s voluntary exile after having murdered a local king and his sons. His illegitimate son Hippolytus, whose mother is the Amazon Hippolyta, has been trained here since childhood by the king of Troizen, Pittheus.

At the opening of the play Aphrodite, Goddess of love, explains that Hippolytus has sworn chastity and refuses to revere her. Instead, he honours the Goddess of the hunt, Artemis. This has led her to initiate a plan of vengeance on Hippolytus. When Hippolytus went to Athens two years previously Aphrodite inspired Phaedra, Hippolytus’ stepmother, to fall in love with him.

Hippolytus appears with his followers and shows reverence to a statue of Artemis, a chaste goddess. A servant warns him about his overt disdain for Aphrodite, but Hippolytus refuses to listen to him.

The chorus, consisting of young married women of Troizen, enters and describes how Theseus’s wife, Phaedra is not eating or sleeping. Phaedra, sickly, appears with her nurse. After an agonizing discussion, Phaedra finally gives in to her nurse’s demands and confesses why she is ill: she loves Hippolytus. The nurse and the chorus are shocked. Phaedra explains that she must starve herself and die with her honour intact. However, the nurse quickly retracts her initial response and tells Phaedra that she has a magical charm to cure her. However, in an aside she reveals different plans.

The nurse tells Hippolytus of Phaedra’s desire, after making him swear an oath that he will not tell anyone else. He reacts with a furious, misogynistic tirade on the ‘poisonous’ nature of women. Because the secret is out, Phaedra believes she is ruined. After making the chorus swear secrecy, she goes inside and hangs herself.

Theseus returns and discovers his wife’s dead body. Because the chorus is sworn to secrecy, they cannot tell Theseus why she killed herself. Theseus discovers a letter on Phaedra’s body, which asserts that she was raped by Hippolytus. Enraged, Theseus curses his son to death or at least exile. To execute the curse, Theseus calls upon his father, the god Poseidon, who has promised to grant his son three wishes. Hippolytus enters and protests his innocence but cannot tell the truth because of the binding oath that he swore. Taking his wife’s letter as proof, Theseus exiles his son.

The chorus sings a lament for Hippolytus.

A messenger enters and describes a gruesome scene to Theseus; as Hippolytus got in his chariot to leave the kingdom, a bull roared out of the sea, frightening his horses, which dashed his chariot among the rocks, dragging Hippolytus behind. Hippolytus seems to be dying. The messenger protests Hippolytus’ innocence, but Theseus refuses to believe him.

Theseus is pleased with Hippolytus’ suffering until Artemis appears and tells him the truth. She explains that his son was innocent and that it was Phaedra who lied. Although the goddess admonishes Theseus’ decision, she ultimately recognizes that the blame falls on Aphrodite. Hippolytus is carried in half alive, and Artemis promises to take revenge on Aphrodite by punishing the next person that Aphrodite loves. Finally, Hippolytus forgives his father, and then he dies.


2.4 Thucydides (or Thoukydides) (c. 460 BC – c. 400 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens in 8 Books.

The Landmark Thucydides, Edited by Robert B. Strassler, Richard Crawley translation, Annotated, Indexed and Illustrated, A Touchstone Book, New York, NY, 1996 ISBN 0-684-82815-4

Book II, 56 Troizen laid to waste during the Pelopponesian War ‘However, while they were still in the plain, and had not yet entered the Paralian land, he had prepared an armament of a hundred ships for Peloponnese, and when all was ready put out to sea. On board the ships he took four thousand Athenian heavy infantry, and three hundred cavalry in horse transports, and then for the first time made out of old galleys; fifty Chian and Lesbian vessels also joining in the expedition. When this Athenian armament put out to sea, they left the Peloponnesians in Attica in the Paralian region. Arriving at Epidaurus in Peloponnese they ravaged most of the territory, and even had hopes of taking the town by an assault: in this however they were not successful. Putting out from Epidaurus, they laid waste the territory of Troezen, Halieis, and Hermione, all towns on the coast of Peloponnese, and thence sailing to Prasiai, a maritime town in Laconia, ravaged part of its territory, and took and sacked the place itself; after which they returned home, but found the Peloponnesians gone and no longer in Attica.’

Book IV, 45 Fortification from the neck of the Methana Peninsula ‘Weighing from the islands, the Athenians sailed the same day to Crommyon in the Corinthian territory, about thirteen miles from the city, and coming to anchor laid waste the country, and passed the night there. The next day, after first coasting along to the territory of Epidaurus and making a descent there, they came to Methana between Epidaurus and Troizen, and drew a wall across and fortified the isthmus of the peninsula, and left a post there from which incursions were henceforth made upon the country of Troizen, Haliae, and Epidaurus. After walling off this spot, the fleet sailed off home.

Book VIII, 3 Building of Spartan Ships ‘Their king, Agis, accordingly set out at once during this winter with some troops from Decelea, and levied from the allies contributions for the fleet, and turning towards the Malian Gulf exacted a sum of money from the Oetaeans by carrying off most of their cattle in reprisal for their old hostility, and, in spite of the protests and opposition of the Thessalians, forced the Achaeans of Phthiotis and the other subjects of the Thessalians in those parts to give him money and hostages, and deposited the hostages at Corinth, and tried to bring their countrymen into the confederacy. The Lacedaemonians now issued a requisition to the cities for building a hundred ships, fixing their own quota and that of the Boeotians at twenty-five each; that of the Phocians and Locrians together at fifteen; that of the Corinthians at fifteen; that of the Arcadians, Pellenians, and Sicyonians together at ten; and that of the Megarians, Troezenians, Epidaurians, and Hermionians together at ten also; and meanwhile made every other preparation for commencing hostilities by the spring.’

Pausanias – [Pausanias ( /pɔːˈseɪniəs/; Ancient Greek: Παυσανίας Pausanías)] Pausanias, reputedly born in Lydia, was a Greek traveller  and geophrapher of the 2nd century AD (as well as Greece he also visited Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Macedonia, Epirus) during height of Roman rule. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch, Joppa and Jerusalem, and to the River Jordan. In Egypt, he saw the Pyramids, and the temple Ammon. In Macedonia, it is alleged that he saw the tomb of Orpheus in Libethra. He travelled to Italy to Campania and Rome. He wrote about whay he saw  at the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, and Mycenae. His most important work, Description of Greece [Periegesis Hellados], a sort of tourist guidebook, remains an invaluable text on ancient ruins. He lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.

The Description of Greece (Ἑλλάδος περιήγησις), survives in ten books which describe ancient Greece from firsthand observations, each dedicated to some portion of Greece. starting in Attica The books describe Attica, Corinth, Laconia, Messenia, Elis, Achaia, Arcadia, Boetia, Phocis and Ozolian Locris. He omits some areas of Greece such as Crete.. The first book seems to have been completed after 143 CE, but before 161CE. No event after 176CE is mentioned in the work.

Pausanias begins his description of each city with a synopsis of its history followed by an account of the monuments in topographical order. He also discusses local daily life, ceremonial rituals, legend and folklore. His main concentration is on artistic world from  the glories of classical Greece, especially religious art and architecture. That he can be relied on for building and works which have since disappeared is shown by the accuracy of his descriptions of buildings which do survive. Pausanias is most at home in describing the religious art and architecture of Olympia and of Delphi. Yet, even in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of quaint and primitive images of the gods, holy relics, and many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, and the statues of Hesiod, Arion, Thamyris, and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia.

While Pausanias never doubts the existence of the gods and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them. His descriptions of monuments of art are plain and unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, and their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains. He is perfectly frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.

His writing includes the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them.

His books are a crucial link between classical literature and modern archaeology.

Christian Habicht  (Professor Emeritus Ancient  History a leading German historian of ancient Greece and an epigrapher in Ancient Greek) observed about Pausanias’ work  “there is not a single mention of the author, not a single quotation from it, not a whisper before Stephanus Byzantius in the sixth century, and only two or three references to it throughout the Middle Ages”. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three 15th-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418; at his death in 1437 it went to the library of San Marco, Florence, then disappeared after 1500.

Archaeologists still find that Pausanias a reliable guide to the sites they are excavating or studying with modern technology such this current project.

It is Book II Corinth that is mainly  relevant to the study of Troizen. Pausanias proposed that monuments of Troizen be divided into three classes, those in the Agora and its neighbourhood, those in the sacred enclosure of Hippolytus, and those upon the Acropolis. translation of Book II follows.



Pausanias und seine „Beschreibung Griechenlands“. Beck, München 1985

Pausanias (fl.c.160 CE): Description of Greece, Book II: Corinth

(Source: Ancient History Sourcebook: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pausanias-bk2.asp)

Chapters 30, 31, 32

[2.30.1] There are three temples close together, one of Apollo, one of Artemis, and a third of Dionysus. Apollo has a naked wooden image of native workmanship, but Artemis is dressed, and so, too, is Dionysus, who is, moreover, represented with a beard. The sanctuary of Asclepius is not here, but in another place, and his image is of stone, and seated.[2.30.2] Of the gods, the Aeginetans worship most Hecate, in whose honor every year they celebrate mystic rites which, they say, Orpheus the Thracian established among them. Within the enclosure is a temple; its wooden image is the work of Myron,1 and it has one face and one body. It was Alcamenes, in my opinion, who first made three images of Hecate attached to one another, a figure called by the Athenians Epipurgidia (on the Tower); it stands beside the temple of the Wingless Victory.[2.30.3] In Aegina, as you go towards the mountain of Zeus, God of all the Greeks, you reach a sanctuary of Aphaea, in whose honor Pindar composed an ode for the Aeginetans. The Cretans say (the story of Aphaea is Cretan) that Carmanor, who purified Apollo alter he had killed Pytho, was the father of Lubulus, and that the daughter of Zeus and of Carme, the daughter of Eubulus, was Britomartis. She took delight, they say, in running and in the chase, and was very dear to Artemis. Fleeing from Minos, who had fallen in love with her, she threw herself into nets which had been cast (aphemena) for a draught of fishes. She was made a goddess by Artemis, and she is worshipped, not only by the Cretans, but also by the Aeginetans, who say that Britomartis shows herself in their island. Her surname among the Aeginetans is Aphaea; in Crete it is Dictynna (Goddess of Nets).[2.30.4] The Mount of all the Greeks, except for the sanctuary of Zeus, has, I found, nothing else worthy of mention. This sanctuary, they say, was made for Zeus by Aeacus. The story of Auxesia and Damia, how the Epidaurians suffered from drought, how in obedience to an oracle they had these wooden images made of olive wood that they received from the Athenians, how the Epidaurians left off paying to the Athenians what they had agreed to pay, on the ground that the Aeginetans had the images, how the Athenians perished who crossed over to Aegina to fetch them–all this, as Herodotus1 has described it accurately and in detail, I have no intention of relating, because the story has been well told already; but I will add that I saw the images, and sacrificed to them in the same way as it is customary to sacrifice at Eleusis.[2.30.5] So much I must relate about Aegina, for the sake of Aeacus and his exploits. Bordering on Epidauria are the Troezenians, unrivalled glorifiers of their own country. They say that Orus was the first to be born in their land. Now, in my opinion, Orus is an Egyptian name and utterly un-Greek; but they assert that he became their king, and that the land was called Oraea after him and that Althepus, the son of Poseidon and of Leis, the daughter of Orus, inheriting the kingdom after Orus, named the land Althepia.[2.30.6] During his reign, they say, Athena and Poseidon disputed about the land, and after disputing held it in common, as Zeus commanded them to do. For this reason they worship both Athena, whom they name both Polias (Urban) and Sthenias (Strong), and also Poseidon, under the surname of King. And moreover their old coins have as device a trident and a face of Athena.[2.30.7] After Althepus, Saron became king. They said that this man built the sanctuary for Saronian Artemis by a sea which is marshy and shallow, so that for this reason it was called the Phoebaean lagoon. Now Saron was very fond of hunting. As he was chasing a doe, it so chanced that it dashed into the sea and he dashed in alter it. The doe swam further and further from the shore, and Saron kept close to his prey, until his ardor brought him to the open ocean. Here his strength failed, and he was drowned in the waves. The body was cast ashore at the grove of Artemis by the Phoebaean lagoon, and they buried it within the sacred enclosure, and after him they named the sea in these parts the Saronic instead of the Phoebaean lagoon.[2.30.8] They know nothing of the later kings down to Hyperes and Anthas. These they assert to be sons of Poseidon and of Alcyone, daughter of Atlas, adding that they founded in the country the cities of Hyperea and Anthea; Aetius, however, the son of Anthas, on inheriting the kingdoms of his father and of his uncle, named one of the cities Poseidonias. When Troezen and Pittheus came to Aetius there were three kings instead of one, but the sons of Pelops enjoyed the balance of power.[2.30.9] Here is evidence of it. When Troezen died, Pittheus gathered the inhabitants together, incorporating both Hyperea and Anthea into the modern city, which he named Troezen after his brother. Many years afterwards the descendants of Aetius, son of Anthas, were dispatched as colonists from Troezen, and founded Halicarnassus and Myndus in Caria. Anaphlystus and Sphettus, sons of Troezen, migrated to Attica, and the parishes are named after them. As my readers know it already, I shall not relate the story of Theseus, the grandson of Pittheus. There is, however, one incident that I must add.

[2.30.10] On the return of the Heracleidae, the Troezenians too received Dorian settlers from Argos. They had been subject at even an earlier date to the Argives; Homer, too, in the Catalogue, says that their commander was Diomedes. For Diomedes and Euryalus, son of Mecisteus, who were guardians of the boy Cyanippus, son of Aegialeus, led the Argives to Troy. Sthenelus, as I have related above, came of a more illustrious family, called the Anaxagoridae, and he had the best claim to the Kingdom of Argos. Such is the story of the Troezenians, with the exception of the cities that claim to be their colonies. I will now proceed to describe the appointments of their sanctuaries and the remarkable sights of their country.

2,30,2,n1. fl. c. 460 B.C.

2,30,2,n2. A contemporary of Pheidias.

2,30,4,n1. Hdt. 5.82-87

[2.31.1] In the market-place of Troezen is a temple of Artemis Saviour, with images of the goddess. It was said that the temple was founded and the name Saviour given by Theseus when he returned from Crete after overcoming Asterion the son of Minos. This victory he considered the most noteworthy of his achievements, not so much, in my opinion, because Asterion was the bravest of those killed by Theseus, but because his success in unravelling the difficult Maze and in escaping unnoticed after the exploit made credible the saying that it was divine providence that brought Theseus and his company back in safety.[2.31.2] In this temple are altars to the gods said to rule under the earth. It is here that they say Semele was brought out of Hell by Dionysus, and that Heracles dragged up the Hound of Hell.1 But I cannot bring myself to believe even that Semele died at all, seeing that she was the wife of Zeus; while, as for the so-called Hound of Hell, I will give my views in another place.2 [2.31.3] Behind the temple is the tomb of Pittheus, on which are placed three seats of white marble. On them they say that Pittheus and two men with him used to sit in judgment. Not far off is a sanctuary of the Muses, made, they told me, by Ardalus, son of Hephaestus. This Ardalus they hold to have invented the flute, and after him they name the Muses Ardalides. Here, they say, Pittheus taught the art of rhetoric, and I have myself read a book purporting to be a treatise by Pittheus, published by a citizen of Epidaurus. Not far from the Muses’ Hall is an old altar, which also, according to report, was dedicated by Ardalus. Upon it they sacrifice to the Muses and to Sleep, saying that Sleep is the god that is dearest to the Muses.[2.31.4] Near the theater a temple of Artemis Lycea (Wolfish) was made by Hippolytus. About this surname I could learn nothing from the local guides, but I gathered that either Hippolytus destroyed wolves that were ravaging the land of Troezen, or else that Lycea is a surname of Artemis among the Amazons, from whom he was descended through his mother. Perhaps there may be another explanation that I am unaware of. The stone in front of the temple, called the Sacred Stone, they say is that on which nine men of Troezen once purified Orestes from the stain of matricide.[2.31.5] Not far from Artemis Lycea are altars close to one another. The first of them is to Dionysus, surnamed, in accordance with an oracle, Saotes (Saviour); the second is named the altar of the Themides (Laws), and was dedicated, they say, by Pittheus. They had every reason, it seems to me, for making an altar to Helius Eleutherius (Sun, God of Freedom), seeing that they escaped being enslaved by Xerxes and the Persians.[2.31.6] The sanctuary of Thearian Apollo, they told me, was set up by Pittheus; it is the oldest I know of. Now the Phocaeans, too, in Ionia have an old temple of Athena, which was once burnt by Harpagus the Persian, and the Samians also have an old one of Pythian Apollo; these, however, were built much later than the sanctuary at Troezen. The modern image was dedicated by Auliscus, and made by Hermon of Troezen. This Hermon made also the wooden images of the Dioscuri.[2.31.7] Under a portico in the market-place are set up women; both they and their children are of stone. They are the women and children whom the Athenians gave to the Troezenians to be kept safe, when they had resolved to evacuate Athens and not to await the attack of the Persians by land. They are said to have dedicated likenesses, not of all the women–for, as a matter of fact, the statues are not many–but only of those who were of high rank.[2.31.8] In front of the sanctuary of Apollo is a building called the Booth of Orestes. For before he was cleansed for shedding his mother’s blood, no citizen of Troezen would receive him into his home; so they lodged him here and gave him entertainment while they cleansed him, until they had finished the purification. Down to the present day the descendants of those who cleansed Orestes dine here on appointed days. A little way from the booth were buried, they say, the means of cleansing, and from them grew up a bay tree, which, indeed, still remains, being the one before this booth.

[2.31.9] Among the means of cleansing which they say they used to cleanse Orestes was water from Hippocrene (Horse’s Fount) for the Troezenians too have a fountain called the Horse’s, and the legend about it does not differ from the one which prevails in Boeotia. For they, too, say that the earth sent up the water when the horse Pegasus struck the ground with his hoof, and that Bellerophontes came to Troezen to ask Pittheus to give him Aethra to wife, but before the marriage took place he was banished from Corinth.

[2.31.10] Here there is also a Hermes called Polygius. Against this image, they say, Heracles leaned his club. Now this club, which was of wild olive, taking root in the earth (if anyone cares to believe the story), grew up again and is still alive; Heracles, they say, discovering the wild olive by the Saronic Sea, cut a club from it. There is also a sanctuary of Zeus surnamed Saviour, which, they say, was made by Aetius, the son of Anthas, when he was king. To a water they give the name River of Gold. They say that when the land was afflicted with a drought for nine years, during which no rain fell, all the other waters dried up, but this River of Gold even then continued to flow as before.

2,31,2,n1. Cerberus, the fabulous watch-dog.

2,31,2,n2. Paus. 3.25.6.

[2.32.1] To Hippolytus, the son of Theseus, is devoted a very famous precinct, in which is a temple with an old image. Diomedes, they say, made these, and, moreover, was the first to sacrifice to Hippolytus. The Troezenians have a priest of Hippolytus, who holds his sacred office for life, and annual sacrifices have been established. They also observe the following custom. Every maiden before marriage cuts off a lock for Hippolytus, and, having cut it, she brings it to the temple and dedicates it. They will not have it that he was dragged to death by his horses, and, though they know his grave, they do not show it. But they believe that what is called the Charioteer in the sky is the Hippolytus of the legend, such being the honor he enjoys from the gods.[2.32.2] Within this enclosure is a temple of Apollo Seafaring, an offering of Diomedes for having weathered the storm that came upon the Greeks as they were returning from Troy. They say that Diomedes was also the first to hold the Pythian games in honor of Apollo. Of Damia and Auxesia (for the Troezenians, too, share in their worship) they do not give the same account as the Epidaurians and Aeginetans, but say that they were maidens who came from Crete. A general insurrection having arisen in the city, these too, they say, were stoned to death by the opposite party; and they hold a festival in their honor that they call Stoning.[2.32.3] In the other part of the enclosure is a race-course called that of Hippolytus, and above it a temple of Aphrodite Spy. For from here, whenever Hippolytus practised his exercises, Phaedra, who was in love with him, used to gaze upon him. Here there still grew the myrtle, with its leaves, as I have described above, pierced with holes. When Phaedra was in despair and could find no relief for her passion, she used to vent her spleen upon the leaves of this myrtle.[2.32.4] There is also the grave of Phaedra, not far from the tomb of Hippolytus, which is a barrow near the myrtle. The image of Asclepius was made by Timotheus, but the Troezenians say that it is not Asclepius, but a likeness of Hippolytus. I remember, too, seeing the house of Hippolytus; before it is what is called the Fountain of Heracles, for Heracles, say the Troezenians, discovered the water.[2.32.5] On the citadel is a temple of Athena, called Sthenias. The wooden image itself of the goddess I was made by CalIon, of Aegina.1 Callon was a pupil of Tectaeus and Angelion, who made the image of Apollo for the Delians. Angelion and Tectaeus were trained in the school of Dipoenus and Scyllis.[2.32.6] On going down from here you come to a sanctuary of Pan Lyterius (Releasing), so named because he showed to the Troezenian magistrates dreams which supplied a cure for the epidemic that had afflicted Troezenia, and the Athenians more than any other people. Having crossed the sanctuary, you can see a temple of Isis, and above it one of Aphrodite of the Height. The temple of Isis was made by the Halicarnassians in Troezen, because this is their mother-city, but the image of Isis was dedicated by the people of Troezen.[2.32.7] On the road that leads through the mountains to Hermione is a spring of the river Hyllicus, originally called Taurius (Bull-like), and a rock called the Rock of Theseus; when Theseus took up the boots and sword of Aegeus under it, it, too, changed its name, for before it was called the altar of Zeus Sthenius (Strong). Near the rock is a sanctuary of Aphrodite Nymphia (Bridal), made by Theseus when he took Helen to wife.[2.32.8] Outside the wall there is also a sanctuary of Poseidon Nurturer (Phytalmios). For they say that, being wroth with them, Poseidon smote the land with barrenness, brine (halme) reaching the seeds and the roots of the plants (phyta),1 until, appeased by sacrifices and prayers, he ceased to send up the brine upon the earth. Above the temple of Poseidon is Demeter Lawbringer (Thesmophoros), set up, they say, by Althepus.[2.32.9] On going down to the harbor at what is called Celenderis, you come to a place called Birthplace (Genethlion), where Theseus is said to have been born. Before this place is a temple of Ares, for here also did Theseus conquer the Amazons in battle. These must have belonged to the army that strove in Attica against Theseus and the Athenians.

[2.32.10] As you make your way to the Psiphaean Sea you see a wild olive growing, which they call the Bent Rhacos. The Troezenians call rhacos every kind of barren olive–cotinos, phylia, or elaios–and this tree they call Bent because it was when the reins caught in it that the chariot of Hippolytus was upset. Not far from this stands the sanctuary of Saronian Artemis, and I have already given an account of it. I must add that every year they hold in honor of Artemis a festival called Saronia.

2,32,5,n1. early fifth cent. B.C.

2,32,8,n1. The epithet phytalmios means nourishing, but to judge from the story he gives, Pausanias must have connected it with the Greek words for brine and plant.

[2.33.1] The Troezenians possess islands, one of which is near the mainland, and it is possible to wade across the channel. This was formerly called Sphaeria, but its name was changed to Sacred Island for the following reason. In it is the tomb of Sphaerus, who, they say, was charioteer to Pelops. In obedience forsooth to a dream from Athena, Aethra crossed over into the island with libations for Sphaerus. After she had crossed, Poseidon is said to have had intercourse with her here. So for this reason Aethra set up here a temple of Athena Apaturia,1 and changed the name from Sphaeria to Sacred Island. She also established a custom for the Troezenian maidens of dedicating their girdles before wedlock to Athena Apaturia.[2.33.2] Calaurea, they say, was sacred to Apollo of old, at the time when Delphi was sacred to Poseidon. Legend adds that the two gods exchanged the two places. They still say this, and quote an oracle:–

Delos and Calaurea alike thou lovest to dwell in,

Pytho, too, the holy, and Taenarum swept by the high winds.1

At any rate, there is a holy sanctuary of Poseidon here, and it is served by a maiden priestess until she reaches an age fit for marriage.[2.33.3] Within the enclosure is also the tomb of Demosthenes. His fate, and that of Homer before him, have, in my opinion, showed most plainly how spiteful the deity is; for Homer, after losing his sight, was, in addition to this great affliction, cursed with a second–a poverty which drove him in beggary to every land; while to Demosthenes it befell to experience exile in his old age and to meet with such a violent end. Now, although concerning him, not only others, but Demosthenes himself, have again and again declared that assuredly he took no part of the money that Harpalus brought from Asia, [2.33.4] yet I must relate the circumstances of the statement made subsequently. Shortly after Harpalus ran away from Athens and crossed with a squadron to Crete, he was put to death by the servants who were attending him, though some assert that he was assassinated by Pausanias, a Macedonian. The steward of his money fled to Rhodes, and was arrested by a Macedonian, Philoxenus, who also had demanded Harpalus from the Athenians. Having this slave in his power, he proceeded to examine him, until he learned everything about such as had allowed themselves to accept a bribe from Harpalus. On obtaining this information he sent a dispatch to Athens,[2.33.5] in which he gave a list of such as had taken a bribe from Harpalus, both their names and the sums each had received. Demosthenes, however, he never mentioned at all, although Alexander held him in bitter hatred, and he himself had a private quarrel with him.So Demosthenes is honored in many parts of Greece, and especially by the dwellers in Calaurea.

  1. Modern writers who wrote about Troizen

From around the second century AD to the 1940s, a number of antiquarians, philologists, eminent classical scholars and teachers of ancient history, archaeologists, travellers, members of the Dilettante Society and writers, contributed to writing the history and archaeology of Troizen. From the 1730’s, the Dilettante Society funded a number of archaeological expeditions and grand tours and a scholarship fund for the purpose of supporting a student’s travel to Rome and Greece.  It funded archaeological expeditions such as that of Richard Chandler, William Pars and Nicholas Revett, the results of which they published in Ionian Antiquities, a major influence on neo-Classicism in Britain.

This section will include information about a selected number of these writers referred to by Legrand and Welter.

This quote gives some idea of how important was the work created by these travellers/writers.  Both Sir William Gell and Edward Dodwell feature in the bibliography in this section.

“The travellers of the early nineteenth century included not only learned or leisured aristocrats but also the new wealthy middle classes eager to take their families on a fashionable tour. Their interests are reflected in the numerous travel-books which were produced during the period. Written for the most part by antiquarians, artists or architects — but also occasionally by diplomats or military officers… at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a great many architects, artists and amateurs were in Greece measuring its monuments, investigating its topography and recording the customs and costumes of the people……..William Gell’s series of works, published between 1817 and 1823, provided important material for Greek topography. Edward Dodwell’s Views in Greece, published in 1821, included genre scenes, picturesque views and records of contemporary costume.”

(source: http://www.victorianweb.org/painting/orientalist/greece.html From the Classical Vision to the Emergence of Modern Greece (1979) Fani-Maria Tsigakou)

Some of the early travelers associated with wrting about Troizen are:

Beulé, C.E. 1875. Études sur le Péloponèse, 2nd ed. Paris, pp. 105ff.

Blouet, A. 1831. Expédition scientifique de Morée, vol. 2, Paris, plate 33.

Bursian, C. 1872. Geographie von Griechenland II, Leipzig, p. 233.

Curtius, E. 1851. Peloponnesos, vol. 1, Gotha, plate 7.

Gell, W. 1817. Itinerary of Morea, London, pp. 106-108.

Leake, W.M. 1830. Travels in the Morea II, London, pp. 313ff.

Philippson, A. 1892. der Peloponnes, Berlin, p. 330.

Puillon-Boblaye, E. 1835. Recherches geographiques sus les ruins de la Moree, Paris, p.162.

Ross, L. 1841. Reisen im Peloponnes, Berlin, pp. 91ff.

Legrand refers to the work of Theophile Homolle, who with others in 1877, on behalf of the French Archaeological Institute, prosecuted very extensive investigations on the site of the town on Delos in the time around 1877. Excavations were made by the French School at Athens upon the island of Delos chiefly by Theophile Homolle.

Although not referred to by either Legrand or Welter, Robert Graves in his The Greek Myths : 1 ( Penguin Books Ltd first published 1955) in Chapter 95 ‘The Birth Of Theseus’ b,e, f, and g, discusses the way in which the city Troizen came to be formed: ‘ On his (Aegus) way home he called at Corinth; and here Medea made him swear a solemn oath that he would shelter her from all enemies if she ever sought refuge at Athens, and undertook in return to procure him a son by magic. Next he visited Troezen, where his old comrades Pittheus and Troezen , sons of Pelops, had recently come from Pisa to share a kingdom with King Aetius. Aetius was the successor of his father Anthas, son of Poseidon and Alcuone who, having founded the cities Anthaea and Hyperea, had lately saild off to found Halicarnassus in Caria. But Aetius seems to have enjoyed litte power, because Pittheus, after Troezen’s death, united Anthaea and Hyperea into a single sity, which he dedicated jointly to Athene and Poseidon, calling it Troezen. Paragraph e discusses Aegeus wanting to secretly reared his son in Troizen, if one were born to him and Aethra; the harbour of Troizen is mentioned in paragraph f, and in paragraph g, there is a description of Herakles dining at Troizen with Pittheus.

Graves defines the word Troizen as  a worn down form of trion hezomemon , the city of the three sitters .

Philipp August Böeckh, a German classical scholar and antiquarian, was born in Karlsruhe on 24 November, 1785 and he died in Berlin on 3 August 1867. He was educated at the local gymnasium; in 1803 he left for the University of Halle, where he studied theology. Böeckh transferred from theology to philology, and in 1807 he established himself as Privatdozent in the University of Heidelberg and was shortly afterwards appointed professor extraordinarius, becoming professor two years later. In 1811 he went to the new Humboldt University at Berlin, where he took up appointment as professor of eloquence and classical literature. He remained there till his death. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin in 1814, and for a long time acted as its secretary.

He was a contemporary of J. Franz, E. Curtius, A. Kirchhoff and H. Röehl, who edited much of his work and to whom Legrand refers in his five articles.  Boeckh was a prolific writer, but the important work referred by Legrand is ‘Sur le culte d’Isis a Trezene. CIG, 1184’. [which translated means “about the cult of Isis at Trezene”].

In Berlin August Boeckh did important work on Greek poetry, particularly Pindar, but also established on a firm footing the study of Greek private and public economy. Legrand refers to Pindar in his articles.

From 1806 till his death Böckh’s literary activity was unceasing.One of his principal works was an edition of Pindar, the first volume of which (1811) contains the text of the Epinician odes; a treatise, De Metris Pindari, in three books; and Notae Criticae: the second (1819) contains the Scholia; and part ii. of volume ii. (1821) contains a Latin translation, a commentary, the fragments and indices. It was for a long time the most complete edition of Pindar.

Besides his edition of Pindar, Böckh published an edition of the Antigone of Sophocles (1843) with a poetical translation and essays. An early and important work on the Greek tragedians is his Graecae Tragoediae Principum … num ea quae supersunt et genuine omnia sint et forma primitive servata (1808).

(Sources: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/71211/August-Boeckh  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Böckh, Philipp August”. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This work in turn cites: Sachse, Erinnerungen an August Böckh (1868).

Stark, in the Verhandlungen den Würzburger Philologensammlung (1868)

Max Hoffmann, August Böckh (1901)and Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Edward Dodwell (1767 – 13 May 1832) was an Irish painter, traveller and a writer on archaeology. He was born in Ireland and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.

Dodwell travelled from 1801 to 1806 in Greece, and spent the rest of his life for the most part in Italy, at Naples, and Rome. He died at Rome from the effects of an illness contracted in 1830 during a visit of exploration to the Sabine Mountains. Dodwell’s widow, a daughter of Count Giraud, thirty years his junior, subsequently became famous as the “beautiful” countess of Spaur, and played a considerable role in the political life of the papal city.

Dodwell published A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (1819), of which a German translation appeared in 1821; Views in Greece, with thirty colored plates (1821); and Views and Descriptions of Cyclopian or Pelasgic Remains in Italy and Greece (London and Paris, with French text, 1834). Legrand refers to Dodwell’s A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (1819),

References: Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). “Dodwell, Edward”. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Sir John Chardin  Le Chevalier cited by Legrand from Voyage of the Troad- is actually: Travel of Mr. le Chevalier Chardin, in Persia, and other places of the East:

  • Collitz. Hermann
  • Michaelis, Adolf
  • Overbeck, Johannes
  • Timotheus Epidaurus

Paul-Francois Fourcart 1836-1926

Karl Gustav Fiedler (1841): Reise durch alle Teile des königreiches Griechenland in Auftrag der königl. griechischen Regierung in den Jahren 1834 bis 1837, 2 vols., Leipzig.

Henri Omont Missions Archaeologies Francais en Orient aux XVII et XVIII siecles – 2 vols.,Paris 1902. This document  contains a whole section on M.Fourmont’s travel through Greece between 1729 and 1730. Legrand refers to Fourmont more than once.

Sir William Gell (1 April 1777 – 4 February 1836) was an English classical archaeologist, illustrator, and antiquarian. He was born at Hopton in Derbyshire. The Gell family was one of the oldest families in England with a tradition of service in the Army, Navy, Parliament and the Church going back to 1209, in the reign of King John. Gell was educated at Derby School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He matriculated there in 1793, took a BA degree in 1798 and an MA in 1804, and was elected a fellow of Emmanuel.[2][3]

In 1801, at the age of 24, he was sent on his first diplomatic mission to Greece where he fixed the site of Troy at Bournabiski.

From 1804 to 1806 he travelled in Greece and the neighbouring islands. He was in

1807 elected a Member of the Society of Dilettanti and a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1811 the Society of Dilettanti commissioned him to explore Greece and Asia Minor. These travels resulted in several publications, e.g. Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca and Itinerary of Greece, with a Commentary on Pausanias and Strabo. With these publications he achieved fame in the scholarly circles as a classical topographer. From 1820 until his death, he resided in Rome, where he painted.

His topographical works became recognised text-books at a time when Greece and even Italy were but superficially known to English travellers. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries of London, and a member of the Institute of France and the Royal Academy in Berlin.

His best-known work is Pompeiana; the Topography, Edifices and, Ornaments of Pompeii, published between 1817 and 1832, in the first part of which he was assisted by J. P. Gandy. His publications include Topography of Troy (1804), Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca (1807), Itinerary of Greece (1810), Itinerary of the Morea (1817), and other works. With John Peter Gandy (later Deering) he published Pompeiana (1817), and later (1832) Pompeiana: the Topography, Ornaments, etc., showing the results of excavations at Pompeii since 1819.

In 1834 he wrote the Topography of Rome and its Vicinity. He wrote also Topography of Troy and its Vicinity (1804); Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca (1807); Itinerary of Greece, with a Commentary on Pausanias and Strabo (1810); and Itinerary of the Morea (1816). Although these works have been superseded by later publications, they continue to provide valuable information for the study of classical topography. He is, together with his friends Edward Dodwell and Keppel Richard Craven, seen by some modern scholars, as the founder of the study of the historical topography of the hinterland of Rome.[5]


A Tour in the Lakes Made in 1797, [Edited by W. Rollinson, published 1986]

The Topography of Troy and its vicinity illustrated and explained by drawings and descriptions etc.. London, 1804

The Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca. London, 1807

The Itinerary of Greece, with a commentary on Pausanias and Strabo, and an account of the Monuments of Antiquity at present existing in that country, compiled in the years 1801, 2, 5, 6 etc.. London, 1810. [2nd ed. containing a hundred routes in Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, 1827]

The Itinerary of the Morea, being a description of the Routes of that Peninsula. London, 1817

Vievs in Barbary – taken in 1813. London, 1815

Pompeiana. The Topography of Edifices and Ornaments of Pompeii. 2 vols. London, 1817-8. [New ed. 1824. Further edition by Gell alone incorporating the results of latest excavations. London 1832 and 1852]

Gell, William. The Itinerary of Greece, containing onehundred routes in Attica, Boetia etc, London, 1819.

Narrative of a Journey in the Morea. London, 1823

Le Mura di Roma disegnate sa Sir W. Gell, illustrates con testo note da A. Nibby. Rome, 1820

Probestücke von Städtemauern des alten Griechenlands … Aus dem Englischen übersetzt. Munich, 1831

The Topography of Rome and its Vicinity with Map”. 2 vols. London, 1834. [Rev. and enlarged by Edward Henry Banbury. London 1846]

Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta de’ dintorni di Roma secondo le osservazione di Sir W. Gell e del professore A. Nibby. Rome 1837 [2nd ed. 1848]


2.^ Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). “Gell, William”. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.

3.^ Wroth, W. W. & Thompson, J. – Gell, Sir William (1777–1836), classical archaeologist and traveller in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004)

4.^ London Gazette: no. 16898. p. 1007. 14 May 1814. Retrieved 11 October 2008.

5.^ * Wallace-Hadrill, A. -“Roman Topography and the Prism of Sir William Gell”, in Haselberger, L. & J. Humphrey (eds.) Imaging Ancient Rome: Documentation, Visualization, Imagination. Portsmouth, RI, 2006, p. 296

Further reading

Clay, Edith (ed.) -Sir William Gell in Italy: Letters to the Society of Dilettanti, 1831–1835. London, 1976

Wallace-Hadrill, A. -“Roman Topography and the Prism of Sir William Gell”, in Haselberger, L. & J. Humphrey (eds.) Imaging Ancient Rome: Documentation, Visualization, Imagination. Portsmouth, RI, 2006, p. 285–296

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  and http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Sir_William_Gell.aspx)

The copied text included here refers to Sir William Gell:path 1















William Martin Leake, FRS (14 January 1777 – 6 January 1860), was a British antiquarian and topographer. He was born in London. After completing his education at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Regiment of Artillery in 1794.[1] Having spent four years in the West Indies as lieutenant of marine artillery, he was promoted to captain, and was sent in 1799 by the government to Constantinople to train the forces of the Ottoman Empire in the use of artillery. The British Empire had decided to support the Ottoman in its defense against Napoleonic France. A journey through Asia Minor in 1800 to join the British fleet at Cyprus inspired him with an interest in antiquarian topography. In 1801, after travelling across the desert with the Turkish army to Egypt, he was, on the expulsion of the French, employed in surveying the valley of the Nile as far as the cataracts; but having sailed with the ship engaged to convey the Elgin marbles from Athens to England, he lost all his maps and observations when the vessel foundered off Cerigo in Greece.

Shortly after his arrival in England he was sent out to survey the coast of Albania and the Morea, with the view of assisting the Turks against attacks of the French from Italy, and of this he took advantage to form a valuable collection of coins and inscriptions and to explore ancient sites. In 1807, war having broken out between Turkey and England, he was made prisoner at Salonica; but, obtaining his release the same year, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Ali Pasha of Ioannina, whose confidence he completely won, and with whom he remained for more than a year as British representative.

In 1810 he was granted a yearly sum of £600 for his services in Turkey. In 1815 he retired from the army, in which he held the rank of colonel, devoting the remainder of his life to topographical and antiquarian studies. He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 13 April 1815.[2]

He died at Brighton on the 6 January 1860. The marbles collected by him in Greece were presented to the British Museum; his bronzes, vases, gems and coins were purchased by the University of Cambridge after his death, and are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, received the honorary DCL at Oxford (1816), and was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and correspondent of the Institute of France. His Topography of Athens, the first attempt at a systematic treatment, long remained an authority.


He published:

The topography of Athens: With some remarks on its antiquities (1821)

Journal of a tour in Asia Minor,: with comparative remarks on the ancient and modern geography of that country (1824)

Travels in the Morea: With a map and plans (1830), and a supplement, Peloponnesiaca (1846)

Travels in Northern Greece (1835) Numismata Hellenica (1854), followed by a supplement in 1859.


1.^ Marsden 1864, p. 1.

2.^ “Lists of Royal Society Fellows”. Retrieved 2006-12-15.


Marsden, John Howard (1864). A brief memoir of the life and writings of the late Lieutenant-Colonel William Martin Leake. London: Printed by Whittingham and Wilkins for private circulation only.

the Architect for 7 October, 1876

Ernst Curtius in the Preussische Jahrbücher (September 1876)

JE Sandys, Hist. of Classical Scholarship, iii. (1908), p. 442.

J.M. Wagstaff, Colonel Leake in Laconia, in J.M. Sanders (ed), ΦΙΛΟΛΑΚΩΝ. Lakonian studies in honour of Hector Catling. (1992) Athens, 277-83.

J.M. Wagstaff, Pausanias and the topographers. The case of Colonel Leake, in S.E. Alcock, J.F. Cherry, and J. Elsner (eds), Pausanias. Travel and memory in Roman Greece. (2001a) Oxford, 190-206.

J.M. Wagstaff, Colonel Leake. Traveller and scholar. in S. Searight and M. Wagstaff (eds), Travellers in the Levant. Voyagers and visionaries. (2001b) Durham, 3-15.

CL Witmore, On multiple fields. Between the material world and media: Two cases from the Peloponnesus, Greece, Archaeological Dialogues, (2004) 11(2), 133-164. link

CL Witmore and TV Buttrey, William Martin Leake: a contemporary of P.O. Brøndsted in Greece and in London, in P.O. Brøndsted (1780-1842) – A Danish Classicist in his European context. Rasmussen, B.B., Jensen, J.S., Lund, J. and Märcher (eds) Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter (2008) 31, 15-34.

(Source:Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


Le Chevalier

Title [Illustrations de Voyages de Mr. Le Chevalier Chardin en Perse et autres lieux de l’Orient] / [Non identifié] ; Sir John Chardin , aut. du texte

Creator Chardin, Sir John. Auteur du texte

Published J.B. Mazuel (Paris)


Travel of Mr. le Chevalier Chardin, in Persia, and other places of the East:

… Includes the relationship of the religion of the Mingrelians by J.M. Zampi, Volumes 1-3 (Google eBook)

Hermann Collitz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hermann Collitz, Ph. D. (1855-1935) was an eminent German historical linguist and Indo-Europeanist, who spent much of his career in the United States. He received the doctorate in 1878 at the University of Göttingen with a dissertation on The Emergence of the Indo-Iranian Palatal Series (German: Die Entstehung der indoiranischen Palatalreihe), and his 1885 Habilitation degree at the University of Halle for The Inflection of Nouns with Threefold Gradation in Old Indic and in Greek: the Cases of the Singular (German: Die Flexion der Nomina mit dreifacher Stammabstufung im Altindischen und im Griechischen – Die Casus des Singular).

In 1886, Collitz emigrated to the United States, where he taught at Bryn Mawr College in Philadelphia. In 1907, he moved to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he took up a chair in Germanic studies.

In 1924, Collitz was elected the first president of the Linguistic Society of America. In 1927, he officially retired from Johns Hopkins, but remained in Baltimore until his death in 1935.

He published:

Sammlung der griechischen Dialektinschriften (1884-1909; with Bechtel)

Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der griechischen Dialekte (1895)

Die neueste Sprachforschung (1886)


Author: Collitz, Hermann, 1855-1935

Subject: Greek language

Publisher: Göttingen, Vandenhoeck

Language: German

Call number: 1243470

Digitizing sponsor: Columbia University Libraries

Book contributor: Columbia University Libraries

Collection: ColumbiaUniversityLibraries; microfilm; americana; additional_collections

Notes: Film/Fiche is presented as originally captured.

Full catalog record: MARCXML

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adolf Michaelis (June 22, 1835 – August 12, 1910) was a German classical scholar, a professor of art history at the University of Strasbourg from 1872, who helped establish the connoisseurship of Ancient Greek sculpture and Roman sculpture on their modern footing. Just at the cusp of the introduction of photography as a tool of art history, Michaelis pioneered in supplementing his descriptions with sketches.

Adolf Michaelis was born in Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, the son of the gynecologist Gustav Adolf Michaelis (1798–1848)[1] and the nephew of Otto Jahn, who introduced scientific philological method into classical archaeology; Jahn first guided his nephew’s interest in the classics. After Jahn’s death, Michaelis produced in 1880 a second edition of Jahn’s scholarly presentation of an excerpt of Pausanias’ description of Greece, Arx Athenarum a Pausania Descripta, offering the Greek text with Latin introduction and notes. The title was a modest understatement: Jahn collected all the classical references to the Acropolis of Athens and all the surviving inscriptions, and incorporated them into a history woven from classical sources. In the 1880 edition, Michaelis added forty plates of site plans, drawings and scholarly restorations of buildings and monuments, as well as engravings of sculpture, terracottas and coins illustrating the cult practices and deities honored on Arx Athenarum, “Athena’s hill”.[2]

Michaelis read classical philology and archaeology at the University of Leipzig, where he attended the classes of Johannes Overbeck (1826–1895), an expert on Pompeii whose emphasis on written sources for documenting Greek art was influential in formulating Michaelis’ approach to antiquities and whose corpus of mythological representations in Greek art, Griechische Kunstmythologie, begun in 1871, helped spark Michaelis’ own compilation of antiquities in English collections.

Michaelis pursued further studies in Berlin, then returned to Kiel to work on Horace. A trip to Rome in 1857 introduced him to the circle of scholars at the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (The German Archaeological Institute),[3] on whose fellowship he travelled to Greece with Alexander Conze in 1859-60,[4] On his return to Germany he taught briefly at Greifswald and at Tübingen, 1862-67. In 1872, following the publication of his monograph on the Parthenon[5] he accepted the chair for Classical Archaeology at the recently established University of Strasbourg, where he settled down for life and created a great department of archaeology supported by a great archaeological library. During recesses he scoured the collections of classical sculpture conserved in English country houses, the result of a century and a half of British collecting; in 1882 he published the repertory for which he has remained famous, a work still referred to, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain; this, in addition to his scholarly work on classical sculpture, is the cornerstone of the history of English collecting in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

From 1894 until 1899, he was also administrator of the Egyptian collection at the University of Strasbourg.[6]

Michaelis summed up his knowledge in 1906 with his Die archäologischen Entdeckungen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts,[7] one of the first historiographies of the development in classical archaeology that had taken place during the nineteenth century; it follows in detail the archaeological expeditions, many of them undertaken by German institutions, with illustrations and site plans, ending with an overview of the older archaeology and the conditions of new views.

Michaelis died at Strasbourg. His volume on classical art, Das Altertum, written for Anton Springer’s extensive survey, Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte, appeared posthumously in 1911.


1.^ Michaelis’ rhomboid is named for him.

2.^ The work, familiarly referred to as “Jahn-Michaelis”, remains in the active scholarly repertory: a fourth edition with four added plates was edited by E. Thiersch, G. Ph. Stevens, and A. Oikonomides. (Chicago: Ares), 1976. ISBN 0-89005-078-3.

3.^ Later he would chronicle its history: Geschichte des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 1829-1879 (Berlin 1879).

4.^ His journals of this trip and a later one in 1886 have been edited by Hans von Steuben, Archäologische Reisen in Griechenland 1860 und 1886. (Möhnesee) 2004. ISBN 3-933925-47-9.

5.^ Der Parthenon. Leipzig, 1870-71.

6.^ Frédéric Colin, “Comment la création d’une ‘bibliothèque de papyrus’ à Strasbourg compensa la perte des manuscrits précieux brûlés dans le siège de 1870”, La revue de la BNU, 2, p. 24-47.

7.^ Translated as A Century of Archaeological Discoveries (London 1908). The second German edition, 1908, appeared under the title Ein Jahrhundert kunstarchäologischer Entdeckungen.


Der Parthenon, Leipzig, 1870-1871. (Plates and text @ Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg)

Geschichte des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 1829-1879, Berlin, 1879. (@ Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg)

Rede über die Entwicklung der Archäologie in unserem Jahrhundert, Straßburg, 1881.

Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, Cambridge, 1882. (Internet Archive)

Zur aristotelischen Lehre vom ΝΟΥΣ, Neu-Strelitz, 1888. (Internet Archive)

Literaturnachweis zur siebenten Auflage des ersten Bandes von Anton Springers Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte, Leipzig, 1904. (Internet Archive)

Die archäologischen Entdeckungen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1906. (@ Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg) Second edition: Ein jahrhundert kunstarchäologischer entdeckungen, Leipzig, 1908. (Internet Archive) A century of archaeological discoveries, London, 1908. (Internet Archive)

Das Altertum, Leipzig, 1911.

Johannes Overbeck

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Johannes Adolph Overbeck (March 27, 1826 – November 8, 1895) was a German archaeologist and art historian.


Overbeck was born in Antwerp. He was son-in-law to zoologist Georg August Goldfuss (1782-1848), and was father-in-law to anthropologist Emil Ludwig Schmidt (1837-1906). His uncle was famed painter Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869).

In 1848 Overbeck received his Ph.D. from the University of Bonn, where he was a Privatdocent from 1850 to 1853. In 1853 he became extraordinary professor of archaeology and dean of the archaeological collection at the University of Leipzig. He worked at Leipzig for the remainder of his career, and became an ordinary professor in 1859. Two of his better known students were Adolf Furtwängler (1853-1907) and Adolf Michaelis (1835-1910). He also helped direct the Archaeological Institute in Berlin (1874-1895).[1]

Plan of the Old Baths at Pompeii by Overbeck

Overbeck was a specialist of Greek Kunstmythologie (mythological art) in the field of archaeology. One of his earliest publications was an important work on Pompeii which ran to several editions, and in 1884 with August Mau (1840-1909), he published a book about Pompeii and its works of art, titled Pompeji in seinen Gebäuden, Alterthümern und Kunstwerken.

He rarely visited archaeological sites, preferring to write about them second hand. This tended to give his writings a dry flavor, which even his comprehensive marshalling and organization of materials could not really overcome. Carl Schurz has noted that “it has been said that [Overbeck] wrote the best book that has ever been written on Herculaneum and Pompeii, without ever having seen either spot.” Overbeck’s devotion was mainly to the lecture pulpit, and there he made his most noteworthy contributions. His lectures were very well attended, the primary ones with frequently over 100 listeners. He sought to improve the life of students in other ways as well by establishing a reading room and infirmary. As one compensation for his lack of first-hand experience, he developed Leipzig’s collection of plaster casts.[1]

Selected writings

Pompeii, Leipzig 1855

Geschichte der Griechischen Plastik (History of Greek sculpture), Two volumes, Leipzig 1857/58

Die archäologische Sammlung der Universität Leipzig (The Archaeological Collection of the University of Leipzig), Leipzig 1859

Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den Griechen (The Ancient Manuscript Sources on the History of Greek Fine Arts), Leipzig 1868

Griechische Kunstmythologie (Greek Art-mythology), Three volumes, Leipzig 1871/89

Atlas, Leipzig 1872/87

Pompeji in seinen Gebäuden, Alterthümern und Kunstwerken (Inside Pompeii’s Buildings, Antiquities and Works of Art), with August Mau (1884)


Parts of this article are based on a translation of the article Johannes Overbeck from the German Wikipedia.

Dictionary of Art Historians, Biography

  1. Th. (1910) (in German). “Johannes Overbeck”. In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). 55. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 852–854.

“Overbeck, Johannes Adolf”. New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

“Catalog of professors at the University of Leipzig: Prof. Dr. phil. Johannes Adolf Overbeck”. Retrieved 22 March 2011. (German)

Carl Schurz, Reminiscences (3 volumes), New York: The McClure Company, 1907. Schurz discusses his colleague in the Burschenschaft Franconia in Chapters IV of Volume One. Overbeck was the presiding officer when Schurz first arrived in Bonn and Schurz characterizes him as a “brilliant student” who had already published a volume of poetry.

Timotheus (sculptor)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timotheus (Epidaurus, ?–Epidaurus, ca. 340 BC) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC, one of the rivals and contemporaries of Scopas of Paros, among the sculptors who worked for their own fame on the construction of the grave of Mausolus at Halicarnassus between 353 and 350 BC.[1] He was apparently the leading sculptor at the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus, ca. 380 BC. To him is attributed[2] a sculpture of Leda and the Swan in which the queen Leda of Sparta protected a swan from an eagle, on the basis of which a Roman marble copy in the Capitoline Museums[3] is said to be “after Timotheus”. The theme must have been popular, judging by the more than two dozen Roman marble copies that survive.[4] The most famous version has been that in the Capitoline Museums in Rome, purchased by Pope Clement XIV from the heirs of Cardinal Alessandro Albani. A highly restored version is in the Museo del Prado, and an incomplete one is in the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut.


1.^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 36.30-31.

2.^ The connection with Timotheus was first made by Franz Winter, (Mittheil. Arch. Athen. 1894:157-62 and pl. vi), on the basis of comparison of drapery of a Nereid or a Hygeia of Timotheus, just then being excavated at Epidaurus. (Adolf Michaelis, A Century of Archaeological Discoveries (1908:313)

3.^ Inv. MC0302.

4.^ Richard Hamann, “Original und Kopie” Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft 15 (1949, pp. 135-156) p 153.

Further reading

Reiche, A. “Die copien der ‘Leda von Timotheos'” Antike Plastik 17 (1978:21-55).

Kunzl, E. and G. Horn, Die ‘Hygeia’ des Timotheos 1969.

Schorb, B. Timotheos 1965.

Brill’s New Pauly, “Timotheus”.

For the Parian Chronicle, Inscriptiones graecae, xii. 100 sqq.

Karl Gustav Fiedler: the cave of Kalafidg on Thermia. In: journey through all parts of the Kingdom of Greece on behalf of the Royal Theater. Greek Government in the years 1834 to 1837. 2, Friedrich Fleischer, Leipzig 1841, pp. 102-105 (Google Books, retrieved on September 23, 2010 )).



K.G. Fiedler (1841): Reise durch alle Teile des königreiches Griechenland in Auftrag der königl. griechischen Regierung in den Jahren 1834 bis 1837, 2 vols., Leipzig.


Full text here of Missions Archaeologies Francois en Orient aux XVIII et XVIII siecles


Omont,  H., Missions archéologiques françaises en Orient aux XVIIe et xviiie s. , 2 vols.,Paris 1902.

Henri Omont

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henri Auguste Omont, was a librarian, philologist and French historian, born on September 15, 1857, died December 9, 1940.

In 1881 he wrote a thesis De la ponctuation and was employed in the École Nationale des Chartes as an archivist. He became general inspector in the Bibliothèque nationale de France. He participated in the compilation of the “general catalogue of the manuscripts of the public libraries of France” (Alençon, Avranches, Louviers). At the same time, he undertook research on ancient libraries and the history of printing and books. Omont was a member of the École Nationale des Chartes and Societé des Antiquaires de France. He was elected as a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1900. After his death his private library stayed with his widow till it was bought in 1948 by the Catholic University of Leuven, to reconstruct its collections after they were destroyed by the Germans for a second time. Omont’s library was divided with the partition of the university in 1970 in a Dutch speaking university, that remained in Leuven, and a French speaking one, that moved to a new university town called Louvain-la-Neuve.

He was president in 1900 and 1921 of the Société libre d’agriculture, sciences, arts et belles-lettres de l’Eure.

[edit] Selected works

Bibliothèque de l’école des chartes (1883).

Le fonds grec de la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris 1883)

Notes sur les manuscrits grecs du British Museum, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 45 (1884), pp. 314–350.

Notice sur un très ancien manuscrit grec en onciales des Epîtres de Paul, conservé à la Bibliothèque Nationale. (Paris 1889).

Facsimilés des plus anciens manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotèque Nationale du IXe et XIVe siècle, Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes, (Paris 1891).

Facsimilés des plus anciens manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotèque Nationale du IVe et XIIIe siècle, Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes, (Paris 1892).

Très anciens manuscrits grecs bibliques et classiques de la Bibliotèque Nationale (Paris 1896).

Catalogus codicum hagiographicorum graecorum Bibliothecae nationalis (Paris 1896).

Catalogue des manuscrits grecs, latins, français et espagnols: et des portulans (Paris 1897)

Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris 1898).

Notice sur un très ancien manuscrit grec de l’évangile de saint Matthieu… (Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la bibliothèque nationale; vol. 36.) (Paris, 1901).

Catalogue des manuscrits Ashburnham-Barrois récemment acquis par la Bibliothèque nationale (1901)

Missions archéologiques françaises en Orient aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris, 1902)

Notice sur les manuscrits originaux et autographes des Oeuvres de Brantôme offerts par Madame la baronne James de Rothschild à la Bibliothèque nationale (Paris, 1904)

Psautier illustré (XIIIe siècle) : reproduction des 107 miniatures du Manuscrit latin (Paris 1906)

Un nouveau manuscrit illustré de l’Apocalypse au IXe siècle. Notice du ms. latin nouv. acq. 1132 de la Bibliothèque nationale (1922)

Nouvelles acquisitions du département des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale pendant les années 1924-1928 (1928)

[edit] References

[edit] Bibliography

Bibliographie des travaux de M. Henri Omont. Paris: H. Didier ; Toulouse: Ed. Privat, 1933, XI-270 p.  1108 entries. “Pour le cinquantième anniversaire de l’entrée à la Bibliothèque nationale de m. Henri Omont, la bibliographie de ses travaux a été dressée par les conservateurs-adjoints et les bibliothécaires du Département des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale.” Edited by P. Lauer and E. A. van Moé.

Chris Coppens a.o.(eds), Sapientia aedicavit sibi domum: Leuven University Library 1425-2000, Leuven 2005, p. 351

[edit] Sources

Livret de l’École des Chartes 1821-1966

Catalogue général de la BnF

193 contributions à la Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes.

262 ouvrages at the Système universitaire de documentation.


Beloch, K.J.  1893 Griechische Geschichte, Volume I: Bis auf die sophistische bewegung und den peloponnesischen Krieg. Trübner, Strassburg.

Boardman, J 1980 The Greeks overseas; their early colonies and trade. 3rd ed. Thames and Hudson, London

From Wikipedia

Wilhelm (William) Dittenberger (August 31, 1840 in Heidelberg, died December 29, 1906 in Halle (Saale) ) was a German philologist in classic epigraphy.

Wilhelm Dittenberger was the son of the Protestant theologian Wilhelm Theodor Dittenberger . After studying classical philology at Jena and Göttingen universities from 1859 to 1863, he graduated with a doctorate. In 1864 although staying at the University of Goettingen, Dittenberger began teaching at high-schools in Berlin, Rudolstadt, and Quedlinburg. In 1874 he became professor of classical philology at the University of Halle. He was a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and of the German Archaeological Institute.

Ditte Berger’s research focus was on Greek epigraphy. His name is associated primarily with the selection of collections, the Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (later edited by Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen) and ‘Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae’. Inscriptiones Graecae was Dittenberger’s compilation of ancient inscriptions from the Roman era.

The late attorney Henry Dittenberger (1875–1952) was the son of Wilhelm Dittenberger.


Inscriptions Graecae Vol 3: Inscriptions Atticae Aetatis Romanae. 2 parts. Reimer, Berlin 1878-1882. Reprint 1977-1978, ISBN 3-11-004911-2, ISBN 3-11-007004-9

Vol 7: Inscriptions et Megaridis Boeotiae . Reimer, Berlin 1892nd Reprint 1978, ISBN 3-11-007005-7

Vol 9, 1: Inscriptions Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, Insularum maris Ionii . Reimer, Berlin 1897, reprinted 1978, ISBN 3-11-007006-5 .

Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum . 2 vols. Leipzig 1883rd

Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae . 2 vols. Leipzig, 1903-1905. Reprint Olms, Hildesheim, 1986, ISBN 3-487-00028-8, ISBN 3-487-00029-6 .

Wilfried Gawantka: Updating Concordances to Ditte Berger’s Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae (OGIS) and the third edition of which he authored: Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (3rd ed.) . Hildesheim (1977) ISBN 3-487-06447-2

Literature about Dittenberger

Wilhelm Dittenberger and images of central German life. third generation images of the 18th and 19th Century. Article for the Historical Commission for the Province of Saxony: Otto Kern, Self published, Magdeburg, 1928, pp. 522–538.

Wilhelm Dittenberger (1840–1906). On 100th year to the death of an important scholar and dedicated local politician. Hans-Dieter Zimmermann, Yearbook for Halle City History 2006. Stekovics, Hall 2006, pp. 264–269, ISBN 978-3-89923-133-5.

Paul Perdrizet

Known as the first to recognised the site of Argolis.

‘Situated at the coast four kilometers West of the Strymona delta, the ancient city of Argilos occupies a hill called « Palaiokastro ». The hill, culminating in an acropolis at an altitude of 80 m. high, is naturally protected by ravines on its West and North sides, while its Southeastern side gently slopes down towards the sea. The site of Argilos was first recognized by P. Perdrizet in 1883, basing his identification on the writings of Herodotus, who says that when the Persians crossed the Strymona on their way towards Athens which they wished to conquer, the first city they encountered was Argilos. The site was revisited by P. Collart and P. Devambez in 1930, but no excavation took place. At the end of the 70’s, a few tombs belonging to the necropolis of Argilos were uncovered by the Greek archaeological service. Systematic research only began in 1992 by a joint Greek-Canadian team.’

(Source: http://www.argilos.org/presentation.html)

Adolf Kirchhoff  a philologist born in Berlin January 6, 1826. He taught at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium (1846-1865), and then at the University of Berlin. He was one of the philologists and the leading epigraphers of his time. His main works of Greek Philology are Die Homerische Odyssee (complete edition, Berlin, 1879); Die Abfassungszeit des Herodotischen Gesehichstswerks (1868 2nd ed., 1878); critical editions of Plotinus (Leipzig, 1856, 2 vols), Euripides (1867-68, 3 vol.),Aeschylus (1880) and the Republic of Athenians of Xenophon (1874; 2nd ed., 1881). Epigraphic works include: Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmoeler ( Aufrecht, Berlin, 1849-51, 2 vol.);Das Stadtrecht von Davidlawson5555 (1852); Das gotische Runenalphabet (1852) and Die fraenkischen runes (1855, in the Zt. für deutsches Altertum by Haupt). In le Corpus inscriptionum graecarum, it has provided for the t.I, prior to Euclidregistration; t. IV Christian inscriptions; Finally he wrote: Studien zur Gesch. of the griech. Alphabets (1863, 4th ed..)(1887).

(Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Ludwig Ross Inselreisen Resein auf den grieschischen Inseln des Agaischen Meeres Vols I /II [ Island travel. Travel to the Greek islands of the Aegean Sea.

Hildesheim:, Georg OLMS, 1985 8°. XXVI, 350 pp., b/w illustrations, 1 map. Linen 2 parts in 1 band. Originally appeared as band 1 & 3 of the series “Classics of archaeology island trips = L. Ross, island trips, volumes 1 and 2, reprint, Halle a. S. 1912 (classics, the arch archeology, vol. 1 and 3).

(Source: website Vrougounda, Elf Stunden)

Richard Chandler  was born in 1738 Elson, Hampshire in England.  He was an  English antiquarian, educated at Winchester and at Queen’s College, Oxford, and Magdalen College, Oxford.[1][2].    Chandler died on 9 February 1810.

His first work consisted of fragments from the minor Greek poets, with notes (Elegiaca Graeca, 1759); and in 1763 he published an edition of the inscriptions among the Arundel marbles, Marmora Oxoniensia, with a Latin translation, and a number of suggestions for supplying the lacunae.

In 1764 he was introduced by Robert Wood, who had produced the Ruins of Palmyra, to the Society of Dilettanti.  Chandler was sent by the Society, accompanied by Nicholas Revett, an architect, and William Pars, a painter, to explore the antiquities of Ionia and Greece (1764-1766). The Society’s brief, drawn up on 17 May 1764 was that the travellers make Smyrna their headquarters, and from there “..to make excursions to the several remains of antiquity in that neighborhood; to make exact plans and measurements, to make accurate drawings of the bas-reliefs and ornaments, copying all the inscriptions you shall meet with, and keeping minute diaries.”

Having explored numerous sites in Anatolia and Ionian Islands, they continued to Athens, where they purchased fragments of sculpture from the Parthenon: “We purchased two fine fragments of the frieze which we found inserted over the doorways in the town, and were presented with a beautiful trunk which had fallen from the metopes, and lay neglected in the garden of a Turk”.

Following the completion of the Society’s brief, their work, the Ionian Antiquities in two magnificent folios, was published by the Dilettanti in 1769.  Later, Chandler’s record of the tour, Travels in Greece, or an Account of a Tour Made at the Expense of the Society Of Dillettanti (1776).

He subsequently held several church preferments, including the rectory of Tylehurst, in Berkshire, where he died.

Other works by Chandler were Inscriptiones Antiquae pleraeque nondum editae (Oxford, 1774); Travels in Asia Minor (1775); Travels in Greece (1776); History of Ilium (1803), in which he asserted the accuracy of Homer’s geography. His Life of Bishop Waynflete, Lord High Chancellor to Henry VI, appeared in 1811.

A complete edition (with notes by Nicholas Revett) of the Travels in Asia Minor and Greece was published by R. Churton (Oxford, 1825), with an Account of the Author.


1.^ W. W. Wroth, ‘Chandler, Richard (bap. 1737, d. 1810)’, rev. R. D. E. Eagles, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006, accessed 28 Dec 2008

2.^ Some of his correspondence is in the Magdalene archives.

(This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.)

  1. Cristofani, ed. writes: “The city, ca. 15 stadia from the coast of the Saronic Gulf, was situated on the N slope of the mountain anciently called Phorbantion. Its territory extended to the sea and included the island of Calauria, bordered on the W by Epidauros and on the SW by Hermione. Originally an Ionic city, Troizen was particularly bound to Athens, united by common traditional mythology concerning both the legend of the founding of the city and because one of its ancient princes may have been an ancestor of Theseus, the principal hero of Athens, whose son Hippolytos was particularly venerated at Troizen. Subjugated to the more powerful Argos, Troizen nevertheless attempted to sustain its own policies, entering the Peloponnesian League, and in 480 B.C. welcoming the Athenians in flight from Attica after the battle of Thermopylai. Reference to these events is found in a recently discovered inscription of the 3rd c. B.C., which is considered an ancient falsification of the 4th c. In the course of the Peloponnesian War Troizen was initially allied to Athens, and later to Sparta. The city, because of its favourable geographical position, enjoyed particular prosperity through the Roman period.

The principal monuments of the city, discovered by French archaeologists between 1890 and 1899, include the acropolis and the habitation centre that extended into the plain to the N. An encircling wall in polygonal masonry, descending from the acropolis, constituted the city’s defensive system. Not until the 3d c. B.C., with contributions of the citizens (Paus. 2.31), was there a defence wall, built in

[This text is from: The Princeton encyclopaedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 13 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.]

From the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854. TROEZEN (Τροιζήν; also Τροιζήνη, Ptol. 3.16.12: Eth. Τροιζήνιος: the territory γῆ Τροιζηνία, Eur. Med. 683; ἡ Τροιζηνὶς γῆ, Thuc. 2.56), a city of Peloponnesus, whose territory formed the south-eastern corner of the district to which the name of Argolis was given at a later time. It stood at their distance of 15 stadia front the coast, in a fertile plain, which is described below. (Strabo. viii. p.373.) Few cities of Peloponnesus boasted of so remote an antiquity; and many of its legends are closely connected with those of Athens, and prove that its original population was of the Ionic race. According to the Troezenians themselves, their country was first called Oraea from the Egyptian Orus, and was next named Althepia from Althepus, the son of Poseidon and Leis, who was the daughter of Orus. In the reign of this king, Poseidon and Athena contended, as at Athens, for the land of the Troezenians, but, through the mediation of Zeus, they became the joint guardians of the country, Hence, says Pausanias, a trident and the head of Athena are represented on the ancient coins of Troezen. (Comp. Mionnet, Suppl. iv. p. 267.189.) Althepus was succeeded by Saron, who built a temple of the Saronian Artemis in a marshy place near the sea, which was hence called the Phoebaean marsh (Φοιβαία λίμνη), but was afterwards named Saronis, because Saron was buried in the ground belonging to the temple. The next kings mentioned are Hyperes and Anthas, who founded two cities, named Hypereia and Antheia. Aëtius, the son of Hyperes, inherited the kingdom of his father and uncle, and called one of the cities Poseidonias. In his reign, Troezen and Pittheus, who are called the sons of Pelops, and may be regarded as Achaean princes, settled in the country, and divided the power with Aëtius. But the Pelopidae son supplanted the earlier dynasty; and on the death of Troezen, Pittheus united the two Ionic settlements into one city, which he called Troezen after his brother. Pittheus was the grandfather of Thêseus by his daughter Aethra; and the great national hero of the Athenians was born and educated at Troezen. The close connection between the two states is also intimated by the legend that two important demi of Attica, Anaphlystus and Sphettus, derived their names from two sons of Troezen. (Paus. 2.30. § § 5–9.) Besides the ancient names of Troezen already specified, Stephanus B. (s. v. Τροιζήν) mentions Aphrodisias, Saronia, Poseidonias, Apollonias and Anthanis. Strabo likewise says (ix. p. 373) that Troezen was called Poseidonia from its being sacred to Poseidon.

At the time of the Trojan War Troezen was subject to Argos (Hom. Il. 2.561); and upon the conquest of the Peloponnesus by the Dorians, it received a Dorian colony from Argos. (Paus. 2.30.10.) The Dorian settlers appear to have been received on friendly terms by the ancient inhabitants, who continued to form the majority of the population; and although Troezen became a Doric city, it still retained its Ionic sympathies and traditions. At an early period Troezen was a powerful maritime state, as is shown by its founding the cities of Halicarnassus and Myndus in Caria. (Paus. 2.30.8; Hdt. 7.99; Strabo. viii. p.374.) The Troezenians also took part with the Achaeans in the foundation of Sybaris, but they were eventually driven out by the Achaeans. (Aristot. Pol. 5.3.) It has been conjectured with much probability that the expelled Troezenians may have been the chief founders of Poseidonia (Paestum), which Solinus calls a Doric colony, and to which they gave the ancient name of their own city in Peloponnesus. [PAESTUM]

In the Persian War the Troezenians took an active part. After the battle of Thermopylae, the harbour of Troezen was appointed as the place of rendezvous for the Grecian fleet (Hdt. 8.42); and when the Athenians were obliged to quit Attica upon the [p. 2.1235]approach of Xerxes, the majority of them took refuge at Troezen, where they were received with the greatest kindness by the semi-ionic population. (Hdt. 8.41; Plut. Them. 10.) The Troezenians sent 5 ships to Artemisium and Salamis, and 1000 men to Plataeae, and they also fought at the battle of Mycale. (Hdt. 8.1, 9.28, 102.) After the Persian war the friendly connection between Athens and Troezen appears to have continued; and during the greatness of the Athenian empire before the thirty years’ peace (B.C. 455) Troezen was an ally of Athens, and was apparently garrisoned by Athenian troops; but by this peace the Athenians were compelled to relinquish Troezen. (Thuc. 1.115, 4.45.) Before the Peloponnesian War the two states became estranged from one another; and the Troezenians, probably from hostility to Argos, entered into close alliance with the Lacedaemonians. In the Peloponnesian War the Troezenians remained the firm allies of Sparta, although their country, from its maritime situation and its proximity to Attica, was especially exposed to the ravages of the Athenian fleet. (Thuc. 2.56, 4.45.) In the Corinthian War, B.C. 394, the Troezenians fought upon the side of the Lacedaemonians (Xen. Hell. 4.2. 16); and again in B.C. 373 they are numbered among the allies of Sparta against Athens. (Xen. Hell. 6.2. 3) In the Macedonian period Troezen passed alternately into the hands of the contending powers. In B.C. 303 it was delivered, along with Argos, from the Macedonian yoke, by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but it soon became subject to Macedonia, and remained so till it was taken by the Spartan Cleonymus in B.C. 278. (Polyaen. Strat. 2.29.1; Frontin. Strat. 3.6.7.) Shortly afterwards it again became a Macedonian dependency; but it was united to the Achaean League by Aratus after he had liberated Corinth. (Paus. 2.8.5.) In the war between the Achaean League and the Spartans, it was taken by Cleomenes, in B.C. 223 (Plb. 2.52; Plut. Cleom. 19); but after the defeat of this monarch at Sellasia in B.C. 221, it was doubtless restored to the Achaeans. Of its subsequent history we have no information. It was a place of importance in the time of Strabo (viii. p.373), and in the second century of the Christian era it continued to possess a large number of public buildings, of which Pausanias has given a detailed account. (Paus. 2.31, 32.)

According to the description of Pausanias, the monuments of Troezen may be divided into three classes, those in the Agora and its neighbourhood, those in the sacred inclosure of Hippolytus, and those upon the Acropolis. The Agora seems to have been surrounded with stoae or colonnades, in which stood marble statues of the women and children who fled for refuge to Troezen at the time of the Persian invasion. In the centre of the Agora was a temple of Artemis Soteira, said to have been dedicated by Theseus, which contained altars of the infernal gods. Behind the temple stood the monument of Pittheus, the founder of the city, surmounted by three chairs of white marble, upon which he and two assessors are said to have administered justice. Not far from thence was the temple of the Muses, founded by Ardalus, a son of Hephaestus, where Pittheus himself was said to have learnt the art of discourse; and before the temple was an altar where sacrifices were offered to the Muses and to Sleep, the deity whom the Troezenians considered the most friendly to these goddesses.

Near the theatre was the temple of Artemis Lyceia, funded by Hippolytus. Before the temple there was the very stone upon which Orestes was purified by nine Troezenians. The so-called tent of Orestes, in which he took refuge before his expiation, stood in front of the temple of Apollo Thearius, which was the most ancient temple that Pausanias knew. The water used in the purification of Orestes was drawn from the sacred fountain Hippocrene, struck by the hoof of Pegasus. In the neighbourhood was a statue of Hermes Polygius, with a wild olive tree, and a temple of Zeus Soter, said to have been erected by Aëtius, one of the mythical kings of Troezen.

The sacred enclosure of Hippolytus occupied a large space, and was a most conspicuous object in the city. The Troezenians denied the truth of the ordinary story of his being dragged to death by his horses, but worshipped him as the constellation Auriga, and dedicated to him a spacious sanctuary, the foundation of which was ascribed to Diomede. He was worshipped with the greatest honours; and each virgin, before her marriage, dedicated a lock of her hair to him. (Eur. Hipp. 1424; Paus. 2.32.1.) The sacred enclosure contained, besides the temple of Hippolytus, one of Apollo Epibaterius, also dedicated by Diomede. On one side of the enclosure was the stadium of Hippolytus, and above it the temple of Aphrodite Calascopia, so called because Phaedra beheld from this spot Hippolytus as he exercised in the stadium. In the neighbourhood was shown the tomb of Phaedra, the monument of Hippolytus, and the house of the hero, with the fountain called the Herculean in front of it.

The Acropolis was crowned with the temple of Athena Polias or Sthenias; and upon the slope of the mountain was a sanctuary of Pan Lyterius, so called because lie put a stop to the plague. Lower down was the temple of Isis, built by the Halicarnassians, and also one of Aphrodite Ascraea.

The ruins of Troezen lie west of the village of Dhamalá. They consist only of pieces of wall of Hellenic masonry or of Roman brickwork, dispersed over the lower slopes of the height, upon which stood the Acropolis, and over the plain at its foot. The Acropolis occupied a rugged and lofty hill, commanding the plain below, and presenting one of the most extensive and striking prospects in Greece. There are in the plain several ruined churches, which probably mark the site of ancient temples; and several travellers have noticed the remains of the temple of Aphrodite Calascopia, overlooking the cavity formerly occupied by the stadium. The chief river of the plain flows by the ruins of Troezen, and is now called Potámni. It is the ancient Taurius, afterwards called Hyllicus (Paus. 2.32.7), fed by several streams, of which the most important was the Chrysorrhoas, flowing through the city, and which still preserved its water, when all the other streams had been dried up by a nine years’ drought. (Paus. 2.31.10.)

The territory of Troezen was bounded on the W. by that of Epidaurus, on the SW. by that of Hermione, and was surrounded on every other side by the sea. The most important part of the territory was the fertile maritime plain, in which Troezen stood, and which was bounded on the south by a range of mountains, terminating in the promontories Scyllaeum and Bucephala, the most easterly points of the Peloponnesus. [SCYLLAEUM] Above the promontory Scyllaeum, and nearly due E. of Troezen, was a large bay, protected by the island of [p. 2.1236]Calaureia, named Pogon, where the Grecian fleet was ordered to assemble before the battle of Salamis (Hdt. 8.42; Strabo. viii. p.373.) The porttown, which was named Celenderis (Paus. 2.32.9), appears to have stood at the western extremity of the bay of Pogon, where some ancient remains are found. The high rocky peninsula of Methana, which belonged to the territory of Troezen and is united to the mainland by a narrow isthmus, is described in a separate article. [METHANA] There were formerly two islands off the coast of Troezen, named Calaureia and Sphaeria (afterwards Hiera), which are now united by a narrow sandbank. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 442, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 56; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 431, seq.

  1. Biographical Information on Philippe Alexandre Felix Ernest Legrand and Franz Gabriel Welter

Philippe Alexandre Felix Ernest Legrand

4.1 In 1954, M. L’abbe Guillame Mollat  wrote an article on the life and work of Philippe Legrand.  Mollat wrote about the professional that was Legrand, showing that Legrand was a specialist on Greek archaeology and quite prolific in his writings. Some of the important features of his life are given here, based on Mollat’s article. Another writer on the life of Legrand was F. Ollier in the Annals of University of Lyon, 1952-1953.

4.2 Philippe Erneste Legrand 1866 – 1953 was Professor at the Faculty of Letters at the University of Lyon.

4.3 He was born at Saint Doulchard, near Bourges, on 2 September 1886. His destination was to become a teacher and he was ranked first in his entry to the Ecole Normale in 1885. He was also ranked first when he obtained his Letters in 1888. After having resided in Greece as a member of the School of Athens Francois from 1888 to 1891, he was appointed Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Arts of Lyon. His doctorate theses in 1898 in Lyon, earned him, in 1902, the chair of philology and epigraphs. He retired in 1926 to Culan Castle, a historical fifteenth century castle inherited his parents and his grandparents. The Academy elected him correspondent in December 1913; he became free member in 1933. He died on 1 July 1953. Philip Legrande was regarded as an eminent teacher and scholar.

4.4 Mollat describes Legrand  as the type of person to fulfil his university and professional obligations with the absolute conscientiousness. He refused to leave Lyon to teach at the Sorbonne because he wanted to pursue his scientific work which required extreme dedication. When he retired at the age of 60, it was apparently to devote himself totally to his task of writing journals. Philippe Legrand was regarded to have excelled in the delicate art of writing his journals.

4.5 The scientific work of Philippe Legrande presents itself first as dispersed in a series of articles in the Bulletin of Correspondence Hellenic and archaeological journals.  His epigraphic texts were collected and written during his travels in Euboea, in Mysia, Bithynia, Phrygia and Paphlagonia and excavations operated under his leadership at Troizen.

4.6 Some of the prolific writings of Legrand include: Two Latin inscriptions of Carysias in BCH, 1889 p.519-523; Inscriptions of Euboea, ibid 1891, p. 404-412; Listings Astypalaia and Anaphi ibid, 1892, p.138-147; Statue of Hermes found at Damala 1892 ibid p. 165-174; listings Trezene, ibid, 1893, p. 84-121; Inscriptions of Phrygia, ibid p. 241-293; listings Mysia and Buthynie ibid 1893 p.534-536; listings Concept 1894 ibid p.216-221; listings Paphlagione, ibid 1897, p. 92-101; Excavations 1897 Trezene ibid p. 543-551; listings Trezene ibid 1900 p.178-215; Trezene of Antiquities, notes on topography ibid, 1905 p.52-57; New observations on a building of Trezene, ibid 1906 p.52-57. Contribution to the history of the Parthenon marbles 1894 t. XXIV p.28-33; Documents relating to Comte de Choiseul -Gouffier 1894 t. XXIV p. 216-219; Again the Parthenon Marbles 1895 t. XXVI p.237-239, and the biography of Louis-Francois Sebastien Fauvel antiquarian and Consul (1793-1858), 1897 t. XXX, p. 41-66, 185-201, 385-404, and t. XXXI p.94-103.

4.7 Legrand’s articles on Troizen in the Journal of Philology, 1902, p.99-104, were highly regarded.

Franz Gabriel Welter

4.8 Franz Gabriel Welter, a German classical archaeologist was born on May 16 1890 in Metz; he died on  August 2 1954 in Athens.

4.9 He was born in Lorraine in a family that was attracted to the French culture. As a 14 year-old high school student, he wrote a thesis on the lightning protection of Roman houses.  One year later, he created a map of the Roman settlement around Metz. At the age of 18, he studied a Roman villa near Metz, releasing a publication on this. Despite the connection to French culture, Welter studied at the German Universities of Strasbourg at Franz Winter, in Leipzig at Franz Studniczka , and also briefly in Rome. In Leipzig in 1914, he did his doctorate on a thesis about North African tomb buildings. In 1920, he founded the series of  modules to the archaeology, also publishing in the same year, a picture folder of the Karlsruhe vase collection. However, more than Welter’s first volume was not published.

4.10 The Athens Department of the German Archaeological Institute reopened after the World War I. So in the autumn after World War 1, Welter went to Athens, and Greece became Welter’s new home. Over the years, he worked as “voluntary assistant” (unpaid) for the Department of Athens German Archaeological Institute. The Central Directorate of the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin entrusted him from 1927 to 1937, with the authority over archaeologists based in Athens, but who were undertaking archaeological studies and excavations.

4.11 Welter is widely quoted by archaeologists with an interest in Greek Classical Archaeology.  For example, in an excerpt from her paper ‘The Peloponnesian Herakles: Cult and Labors, completed as a BrynMawr dissertation in December 1995’, Christina A. Salowey (Source on internet: www1.hollins.edu/faculty/saloweyca/Saloweytext.htm),  wrote:

‘ At Troizen there is a Fountain of Herakles, so named because he discovered the water (Paus. 2.32.4).  Archaeologically, the spring can be verifed. There is a fountain house that was supplied with water from a natural spring, originating at the base of Mt. Aderes, ancient Phorbantion.[G. Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia, Berlin 1941, 34 – 36.]  The excavator, Welter, who believes that the site contained an Asklepieion, concluded that the mineralogical properties of the water at Troizen probably formed the basis for the cult of Asklepios and presence of ÞatroÛ at the site.  Since the water from this spring was undoubtedly used in the sanctuary, it may have been therapeutic in some manner.  Therefore, the legend may credit Herakles with the discovery of water with medicinal properties.  Additionally, there are two pieces of epigraphical evidence which indicate the worship of Herakles at Troizen.  A small marble base, dated to the 1st century B.C. bears a dedicatory inscription [19] and a stele, dated to the 5th century B.C., preserves a response to an oracle detailing that Euthymidas must sacrifice to Herakles Alios [20].  These dedications in a healing shrine, as at Epidauros, indicate that Herakles was perhaps worshipped in his capacity as a healing divinity.’

8.2 Welter wrote ‘Troizen und Kalaureia’. Published 1941 by Gebr. Mann in Berlin. Written in German. Edition Notes “Bibliographie”: p. 66-68. At head of title: Archäologisches Institut des deutschen Reiches. Classifications Library of Congress DF261.T8 W4. The book contains 71 p. 44 plates (incl. maps; 1 fold.) 28 cm. Together with Legrand’s work, this is the text that is providing a valuable reference source for the 2012-2013 project.  Welter also wrote, interalia:

  • Aigina; mit 87 abbildungen im text und einer übersichtskarte, which was published/created in 1938 by the same publishers as for Troizen and Kalaureia Berlin, Gebr. Mann, 1938. Classification Library of Congress DF261.A18 W4.
  • Eine Archaologische Zeitschrift fur Palestine

Gnomon, ISSN 0017-1417, 07/1931, Volume 7, Issue 7, pp. 397 – 398

  • Das neue Museum in Aigina

Gnomon, ISSN 0017-1417, 05/1927, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp. 319 – 320

5.Texts of  Philippe Ernest Legrand and Gabriel Welter

5.1 The Troizen 2012-2013 Archaeological Project, has mainly referred to the works French archaeologist Philippe-Erneste Legrand , German archaeologist Gabriel Welter and  original Greek Pausanias’s” Description of Greece “, as well as English translations of this work. The current project, when drawing the maps, plans and reconstructing the site (both the Acropolis and the sanctuary of Hippolytus) will be matching  the detailed descriptions provided by previous writers of locations, dimensions and other characteristics of the river, walls, towers, temples, churches, pathways, theatres and other structures.

5.3 Legrand and Welter drew on the works of antiquarians, writers, archaeologists and travellers, some of which it has been possible to discover a little about their lives and their contribution to the history and archaeology of Classical Greece. This document brings together in one place such biographies where it has been possible to find relevant information.  Legrand also draws on work undertaken in the late seventeenth century by both a Venetian group, an uncle and nephew team by the name of Fourmont, and others.

5.4 Legrand published five articles written in French in the Bulletin Correspondence Hellenic between 1893 and 1906. Gabriel Welter published written in German, in 1941 ‘Troizen und Kalaureia’. Legrand and Welter have used many common references.

5.5 Legrand wrote of his field work and excavations in Troizen, the inscriptions he found in Troizen, the buildings of Troizen, and certain antique pieces found at Troizen.His articles can be found at website: http://www.persee with specific articles at: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1897_num_21_1_3552; http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1900_num_24_1_3406; http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1905_num_29_1_3303.

5.6 Some of the writers cited by Legrand were collaborators in their writings.  For example, August  Boeckh worked with J. Franz, E. Curtius, A. Kirchhoff and H. Röehl. H. Roehl, in his writings, uses many of the same references in his works as Legrand, for example, Overbeck, Michaelis, Leake.

5.7  Philip Ernest Legrand. Inscriptions of Troizen. In Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence 17, 1893, p. 84-121. Legrand’s 1893 article is describes a comprehensive collection of inscriptions found at Troizen.The inscriptions found gave informations about dedications, for example in honour of an emperor; decrees in honour of gymnasts, or priests,for example Augustus Fortune;  hygiene and care of physical cleanliness; the process of how the oracle functioned at Troizen. The following is just a few to illustrate the kind of inscritpions found:

  • Artemnis has had two temples inside the city: one, the agora, dedicated to Artemis Soteira, the other near the theater, dedicated to Artemis Lykeia.
  • The inscription is surmounted by a bas-relief in the middle, a small figure representing the honoured personage, each, a larger figure, left, a woman leaning on a spear right.
  • The decree is made in honour of Echilas son of Philonidas, Plateen, and earns the praise, the title of Euergetes , with quotes for him and his family. Services that have earned these rewards are not clearly specified in the inscription.
  • redemption prisoners which suggests that there was talk of a war.
  • The implication of  the existence of a confederation with Crete.
  • Fragment of a decree with three crowns beneath with only a few of the letters being legible. This fragment is to be mentioned because of the last line one can see the name of Hippolytus.
  • Fragment of a decree the honour rendered in favour, of Ision, son of Timothy,
  • Payment of eight pipes a Euxonos (eg pipes used to drain the soil). It mentions earthworks, the site has been cleared, levelled, cuttings thrown on a road.
  • A stele of Euthymidas.
  • A column that belong to a door with the epitaph that it served as a tripod won by Thebes.
  • The Askelpieion as a sacred source.

5.8 Philip Ernest Legrand. Excavations Troezen. In Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 21, 1897. pp. 543-551. doi: 10.3406/bch.1897.3552. This work focuses on the finds Legrand made and some inscriptions he recorded on items on “the terrace”, ie in the area we know as the sanctuary of Hippolytus. He mentions that the Greek Government asked him to abandon his monuments, but that some pieces that came from the foot of the modern village are stored in the Museum Eremcastro.

5.9 Other details include:

  • A description, dimensions, and location of the building Kokkinia Episkopi and surrounding buildings on “the terrace”, noting that these had been razed to their foundations
  • Many architectural fragments of large whitish coarse grain stone 3cm thick; tiles; painted tiles in yellow and black Greek palmettes; debris of small statuettes in bronze and a small serpent; small cups and bowls
  • Inscriptions on remains/fragments which appear to be altars or pedestals.  Some of the inscriptions found in the Palaeo-Episkopi are dedications, for example one is a dedication in honour of a gymnast, others are decrees honouring someone, another is a dedication to Asclepius and another a stele of Euthymida, the water man.
  • The gymnasium seems to have been within or nearby to the temenos of Hippolyte
  • An antique fountain lying above the great temple of Hippolytus. Legrand hypothises that the sanctuary would have minutes of consultations, healing lists, and details of pilgrims who visited there for health reasons.

5.10 Philip Ernest Legrand. Troezen registrations. In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215. doi: 10.3406/bch.1900.3406. Legrand was in Greece between September and November 1899, and this paper is the result of his time in Troizen.  The paper describes a number of finds with inscriptions found in the area of the Acropolis and the lower city of Troizen.  The inscriptions referred appear to date from ancient Troizen, to the time when Greece lost its independence to Rome,  to the beginning of the Christian era. He admits to not undertaking detailed surveys but for the most part he provides location, dimensions and details of the inscriptions. Most of the finds were columns, pedestals, stele, statues, and other large stones and funerary objects. Legrand suffered the problematical issues of deciphering and translating the finds, but one can conclude from what he writes that  the inscriptions are dedications or decrees in honour of various citizens, prominent people or athletes and gymnasts; funerary writings; decrees about war events and issues of government including the treatment of foreigners and fishing rules. Some of the statues commemorated feats or special abilities of certain citizens and great men and women, for example:

  • an athlete named Damotimos;
  • a young Athenian;
  • a priestess of Athena.

5.11 In most cases Legrand was able to identify the names of the people cited on the inscriptions and decrees.  The paper refers to et al:

  • some difficulties with the military pending the establishment of a modus vivandi between Troizen and another city.  Legrand says ‘it remains for us to seek the city which is dealing with Troizen ….’  He also wanted to identify the time in history to which this inscription was referring to- he suggests that it may be Epidaurus;
  • matters of government, debt owed by Troizen, property matters, and treatment of foreigners;
  • fishing laws ‘Fishing was leased by the State to private individuals and it was only fishing for tuna halai’; and
  • a decree about Sparta.

5.12 So these inscriptions provide information about people as well as the history of government in Troizen. In this paper, Legrand writes that there were three sanctuaries of Apollo at Troizen:

  1. Apollo Platanistios – in the mountains on the road to Ilermoine
  2. Apollo Epibalerios in the temenos Hippolyttus and not far from Palaio Episkopi
  3. Apollo Tbearios in the precincts of the city and a short distance from the garden Pardalis in the foundations of Agios Georgios.

5.13 Philip Ernest Legrand. Antiques Troezen; notes topography. In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 29, 1905. pp. 269-318. doi: 10.3406/bch.1905.3303. Legrand’s 1905 publication provides topographical description of the Acropolis and the fertile Plain of Troizen below (the terrace overlooking the harbour); dimensions and characteristics of buildings and finds; fine descriptions of the finds and some illustrations of these, and refers to Pausanias and others who did work on Troizen.  The paper suggests that Legrand faced some of the same issues as the current project in as much as many of the ancient remains are covered by foliage on the Acropolis, while the fertile plain is covered in vines, olive groves, and citrus orchards. He begins by saying:

“The only information we possess ancient the topography of Troezen provided to us by Pausanias (II, 31-32)” .

5.14 The main matters described by Legrand in this 1905 paper are:

(a) The Acropolis:

– an area which is overall steep and hilled

-has the upper town which is on the side of a mountain;

-has the Devil’s Bridge close by;

– the Acropolis is the plateau, and below is the fertile plain of Troizen described as partly ploughed and skirted by the harbour;

– the Acropolis and the Troizen city on the plain form a triangle.

-is surrounded by fortifications containing the remains of a large church, towers, and walls (Legrand writes of walls of beautiful stones well- formed and matched and quadrangle stones in reg-contains the ancient Temple of Athena Stheniade on top of the Acropolis, and other temples such as the Temple of Pan

(b) Finds including architectural fragments marked with ionic writings and inscriptions; potsherds, Frankish currency from the thirteenth century; sarcophogi containing personal items of gold, potsherds, bronze ornaments of animals and birds; remains of marble statues; storage barrels

(c) Sources of water from a river

(d) The fertile Troizen plain is known as the Region Episkopi,  and has the house of Kokkinia, ruined church of Palaia Episkopi, temenos of Hippollyte on the edge of the terrace overlooking the plain to the harbour, the temple of Aphrodite, monuments to the worship of Asclepius, the fountain of Hercules and possible the tomb of Phaidra. Byzantine debris has also been found in this area

(e) The mention by Pausanias of a temple of Aphrodite Akraia overlooking a temple of Isis.

5.15  Philip Ernest Legrand.  New observations on a building Troezen. In Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence 1906 Volume 30 Issue 30 pp. .. 52-57. Legrand’s 1906 publication discusses his find of a banquet hall, and some of its design features.  Legrand collaborated with his close colleague Professor Franz Studniczka (14 August 1860 – 4 December 1929), a German professor of classical archaeology, in relation to the design and measurements of this hall. For example, in the calculations of Professor Studniczka, this great hall of the hestiatorion at Troizen had contained fifty klinai (couches – in a type of ancient furniture used by the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Romans in their symposia or Convivia. Three Klinai were arranged in a ‘U’ shape, which together with the adjoining ‘T’ formed the Triclinium, which was where the dinner guests reclined during the meal).

5.16 One feature of this hall writes Legrand, is that the furniture has been designed to cater for guests of different sizes.The article notes that this hall is consistent with other similar buildings in Greece suche as one in Megara. The hall also contained a number of small rooms.

5.17 Gabriel Welter : Although ‘Troizen und Kalaureia’ was published in 1941 in Germany in German, he was in fact in Troizen in the 1930’s. Gabriel Welter refers to many of the writers that Legrand refers to including Legrand himself. Welter’s ‘Troizen and Kalauria’ provides fine detail of his findings at Troizen. The locations of the findings are documented, supported with maps, drawings and photos. Welter also measured many of the features he discovered and studied at Troizen.  His writings describe:

  • the land and geography in and around Troizen
  • the features as they relate to the geography of Troizen
  • the monuments of the Agora at Troizen
  • the sanctuary of the Akropolis including the Temple of Aphrodite Akraia, the Temple of Isis, and the Temple of Pan
  • features outside the city wall, including the sanctuary of Theomophoros
  • what he found at Troizen  at the Asklepieion, the Terrace of the city, the Propylon and the Temples
  • the running fountain (which he says is never dry) of Herakles, a small hall with an altar, porticos, groups of rooms, a small terrace sanctuary
  • a chronology of the construction and development of the shrine of the sanctuary
  • a chemical analysis of the waters from the fountain of Herakles
  • the temple of Hippolytos, the Temple of Artemis Saronia
  • a reference to Aphrodite Kataskopia
  • the features of the gymnasium of Hippolytos
  • the tombs and graves  of Troizen

References to BCH and IGA

5.18 Many references are made by Legrand and Welter to BCH and IGA.

5.19 The acronym IGA in the references is “Inscriptions Graecae antiquissimae  which was written by Roehl, I. G. A. H. Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, praeter Atticas in Attica repertas. Berlin: 1882. Here is an example of what Roehl wrote in this publication (source Wikipedia):

‘The Stone of Terpon or Pebble of Antibes (Galet d’Antibes) is an ancient artifact excavated near the seawall of Antibes, France (the ancient Antipolis) in 1866 ([1]). The stone is held in the Musée d’Histoire et d’Archéologie adjacent to that same seawall in Antibes. The stone’s inscription has been dated to between 450 – 425 BC,([2]) and the object may once have marked the entrance to a brothel.[citation needed]


The stone is formed in a phallic shape (23″ long, 8″ thick, 73 lbs.), with a carved inscription in Ionic Greek reading:





In standard Greek orthography the text would read:

Τέρπων εἰμὶ θεάς θεράπων σεμνῆς Ἀφροδίτης

Τοῖς δὲ καταστήσασι Κύπρις χάριν ἀνταποδοίη.

It forms a distych in dactylic hexameter:

The inscription can be roughly translated as: “I am Terpon, servant of noble Aphrodite, may Kypris therefore give grace to those who entrusted me with this task.”


L.H. Jeffery: Local Scripts of Archaic Greece (LSAG), no. 288.03

  1. Roehl, Inscriptiones Graecae antiquissimae (IGA), no. 551
  2. Roehl, Imagines Inscriptionum Graecarum antiquissimarum, edition 3 pp. 31 no. 52 Carmina Epigraphica Graeca, no. 400.

5.20 The acronym BCH in the references is “Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique” which translated means “Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence”. Suiv in the references is French for ‘next’.

5.21  From http://www.intute.ac.uk/cgi-bin/fullrecord.pl?handle=20080125-1441289, we note that: “The Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (BCH) is a major academic journal publishing papers and excavation reports related to the research activities carried out by members of the French School of Athens; all contents are in French. The Bulletin is well known by both scholars and students interested in the archaeology of Greece and it is an essential publication on Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek and Byzantine archaeology. The journal publishes two issues every year, the first issue contains academic papers and the second one contains further papers and the excavation reports of excavations run by the French School or in which the School participates; news and summaries about all excavations carried out that year in Greece are also included. It is possible to perform searches of the journal, but full-text search of the contents is not available. At the time of review all issues from 1877 to 2000 were included; newer issues are also planned to be digitised, but will probably appear online a few years later after the printed version. However, the available issues remain of paramount importance for any scholar or student. This website should be an essential tool of work to study the archaeology of ancient Greece.

5.22  In separate sections can be found also the volumes of the tables of contents, which could prove very handy, and the “Suppléments au Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique”, which publishes a series of monographs. Among the available volumes in the series are: “Iconographie classique et identités régionales” (Classical iconography and regional identity); “Les villes de Macédoine à l’époque romaine” (The Macedonian villas of Roman period); “Recherches sur la céramique byzantine” (researches on Byzantine ceramics, proceedings); “L’habitat égéen préhistorique” (the prehistoric Aegean environment, proceedings); “La Vallée de l’Énipeus en Thessalie” (the Enipeus Valley in Thessaly); “Polydipsion Argos. Argos de la fin des palais mycéniens à la constitution de l’État classique” (Argos from the end of Mycenaean palaces to the constitution of the Classical state, proceedings); “Les ateliers de potiers dans le monde grec aux époques géométrique, archaïque et classique” (the workshops of ceramists in the Greek world during the Geometric, Archaic and Classical periods, proceedings); “Dikili Tash. Village préhistorique de Macédoine orientale” (Dikili Tash, prehistoric village in eastern Macedonia); Mykénaïka (proceedings of the 9th international conference on Mycenaean and Aegean texts, 1992); “La Crète mycénienne” (Mycenaean Crete, proceedings, 1997); and “Delphes cent ans après la Grande fouille. Essai de bilan” (Delphi a century after the great excavation, proceedings, 2000).”

  1. Legrand Bibliography from his five articles published between 1893 and 1906.

6.1 1893 Legrand Article: Philip Ernest Legrand Bulletin Correspondence Hellenic 17, 1893, p. 84-121- Inscriptions of Troizen

  1. Kirchhoff (St. zur Gesch. Des griech Alph 4, 160; p 100.).
  2. Ross, Inselreisen 11, p 99.
  3. M. Homolle (BCH, V p 272; VII, p 254).
  4. Hermes, XV, p226, P543; p 547.
  5. Aristide (1, p 411).
  6. Pausanias, Book 1 pps. 25, 34; Book IX p. 39; Book 11 pps. 5, 8, 27, 31, 32.
  7. Vita Appollonii, 1, 9.
  8. Pherecr, dans Phot., Lexie.
  9. Eg ‘Apx (this is supposed to be Greek writing), 1885 pps.16, 21-22, 207.
  10. Ovide, Fast, 111, 265.
  11. Ovide, Metam, XV, 536.
  12. Apollod, 111,10,3.
  13. Sext., Empir, 1, 12.
  14. Sc. Pindar, Pyth, 3, 96.
  15. Eratosth, c6 ct 29.
  16. Hippol., 952 suiv.
  17. Luc., Eloge de Demosth., 27.
  18. Polit., VII, 14.
  19. Cauer, 48 = IGA, 30.
  20. Dittenberger, Sylloge, 389.
  21. Cnide (Newton, Halicarn. Nos. 40,50, 51).
  22. Ov ils venaient d’Argos  (CIG, 1.p.504).[which translated means “Ov they came from Argos”]
  23. Ni syros, colonie d’Argos (Cauer, 169). [ which translated means “Or syros, colony of Argos”]
  24. Camiros de Rhodes, colonie d’Argos (Cauer, 187) and Fourcart, Rev.arch., 1866, p.36.
  25. d’ou ils furent momentanement introduits a Naxos (CIG, 2416).[ which translated means “from which they were momentarily introduced in Naxos”]
  26. Boeckh.
  27. Chandler.
  28. C16, 1183.
  29. Bull de Corresp. Hellenique XV11.
  30. Le Bas-Fourcart n 158.
  31. Smith, Dict. Of Biography; Fabrius, Bibl graeca.
  32. Thucyd., 1,115; IV, 21.
  33. Polyaen, 11,29 suiv.
  34. Frontin, Strateg, 111,6,7.
  35. Diod, XIX 54; XIX 64; XIX 74.
  36. Plut Dem 25; Plut Cleomen, 19.
  37. Chremonide 266-261.
  38. Soldats d’Aratus 243.
  39. Demetrios 11 (4).
  40. M. Mylonaus BCH, X, pps. 136, 142.
  41. Baunack. (Stud., 11-63)
  42. Prellwitz (Argiv. Inschr 175 dans la collection de Collitz) [which translated means Argiv. Inscription 175 from the collection of Collitz].
  43. Lycurg, in Leocrat, 42, Diod XVIII, 11.
  44. CIA, 11,322.
  45. Polyb., 11, 44, Aratus 35.
  46. BCH, XII, pps 315-323. Homolle, Deux bas-reliefs de Delos. [which translated means “Two bas-reliefs of Delos”].
  47. L’honneur de Zenodotos CIG,  106. [which translated means “the honor of  Zenodotos”]
  48. Cassandre.
  49. Stephanus , Byzantius s.v.
  50. BCH, 1891, p.352. et suiv.
  51. Boeckh. Sur le culte d’Isis a Trezene. CIG, 1184. [which translated means “about the cult of Isis at Trezene”].
  52. de livadie. CIL, 111, p. 841.
  53. Eph. Epigr., V, p 91 Geronthrae fragment; Eph. Epigr., IV, p 180 Thebes fragment.
  54. Bull de Corresp Hellenquie XVII.
  55. BCH, X, 1.11-12 Grande Mere.
  56. Le Bas 389.
  57. Fourcart, Assoc relig., No. 46, 1, 33; No. 4,5,27.
  58. Aristide, Aelius. I, p.411.
  59. Pherecr., dans Phot, Lexic.

6.2 1897 Legrand Article: Philip Ernest Legrand

Excavations of Troizen In: Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 21, 1897. pp. 543-551.

Cite this document: Philip Ernest Legrand. Excavations Troezen. In: Bulletin of Hellenic Correspondence. Volume 21, 1897. pp. 543-551. doi: 10.3406/bch.1897.3552

  1. Paul Perdrizet
  2. DCII 1892 p.165-174.  1893 pps.84-120 and 626-627.
  3. Frazer III, p.274 V p.594 reference to Pausanias.
  4. CIG 1183 BCH 1893 p.96 (No. XIII).
  5. DCH, 1893, p.95.
  6. BCH 1893, p110.
  7. BCH 1893, p.86-93 (No. II, III, IV).
  8. Mr Philos. The Ephor of Greek Government.

6.3 1900 Legrand Article: Philip Ernest Legrand

Inscriptions Troezen In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215.

Cite this document: Philip Ernest Legrand. Troezen Inscriptions. In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 24, 1900. pp. 179-215. doi: 10.3406/bch.1900.3406

  1. IWU XVII P.84 suiv.
  2. BCH XVII p.85.
  3. Kirchhoff. Studien zur Gesichte despray Alphabets. 4th edition P.17, 2-17H.[which translated means “studies about the formation of alphabets”].
  4. CIGS 1. 1040.
  5. Ahrens, Dial. Dor. P. Tt Kiichner-Blass, Grammatik 1890, 1,p. 109.
  6. Roehl 284.
  7. Mr Frankel- Mais M. Frankel.
  8. Collitz.
  9. Weisshaeupl, die Grabdeichte der griecs Anthologie, daus le Abhandlumgen des arch, epigr. Seminaers der Universitat Wien, VII, p, 55-61. [which translated means “The Grabdeichte of the Greek Anthology, from the treatises of arch., epigr. Seminars at the University of Vienna”].
  10. Wide de sacris Traezeniorum. P. 19.
  11. BCH XVIII, p. 202 on peut y joinder le numero 28, p. 110.
  12. Bauden Kmaelor, p. 152 et planche XCII, No. 7.
  13. Collignon, Histoire de la sculpture grecque II, p.448.
  14. Loewy, Inschrifen griechischer Bildhauer PX. [which translated means “Inscriptions on Greek Sculptures”].
  15. Overbeck, Gesch der griech Plastik II, p. 112-113. [Legrand may have meant to write Gesichte- meaning visions as there does not appear to be a German word that corresponds to Gesch].
  16. BCH XXI p. 543 suiv 1893.
  17. BCH 1893 P.102 No. XXIV.
  18. Svoboda, die griech Volksbeschlusse, p. 87-94. [which translated means “the  Greek national conclusions”].
  19. BCH XVII, p110, No. XXVIII.
  20. BCH XVII p.109.
  21. BCH 1893, p.120 XXVIII.
  22. Michaelis CIA IV 2 986 Arch Zeitung 1867.
  23. Mittheil 4th 1898 p.20 (Blinkenberg) P. 17-18.
  24. Etymol 725,25.
  25. Dittenberger, Sylloge 2 No. 255 Ligues 16-17.
  26. Colleague of Legrand- M Holleaux.
  27. Niese, Gesichte der griech und makedon Staaten 11, p. 450, No. 5. [which translated means “Visions of the Greek and Macedonian States”].
  28. A Kynaitha (Polyb., IV 18 2-4).
  29. BCH IV 304 et 311 note 2.
  30. Rhode p.30-301.
  31. Wilamowitz die Amphietgonie con Kalaureia, dan les Nachrichten de Gottigen 1896, p. 158 suiv.
  32. Cavvadias Fouilles de Epidaure p. 107 No. 245.  [Note that Cavvadias has also been shown spelt Kavvadias by Legrand].
  33. Prott v ol p.37.
  34. Kaestner-dissertation.

6.4 1905 Legrand  Article: Philip Ernest Legrand

Antiques Troezen; notes topography

In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 29, 1905. pp. 269-318.

Cite this document: Philip Ernest Legrand. Antiques Troezen; notes topography. In: Bulletin of Hellenic correspondence. Volume 29, 1905. pp. 269-318. doi: 10.3406/bch.1905.3303

  1. Fourmont (1729).
  2. Petrus Joannes Olivarius-Pompomus Mela (1511).
  3. Bibliotheque Nationale, Noivelles acquisitions francaises, 1892, f 450 suiv.
  4. Le Chevalier  Voyage de Troade.
  5. Chandler (trad franc. 1806, III, p. 233 suiv.
  6. Gell, Interinary of Greece, Argolis. P.120 suiv.
  7. Itinerary of Moree p.105.
  8. Dodwell. (A Classical Topographical Tour through Greece), II, p. 267 suiv.
  9. Pouqueville. Voyage de la Grece V p.249 suiv.
  10. Leake. Travels in Moree II, p. 447 suiv.
  11. Prokesch-Osten. Denkwurdigkeiten III, p. 46 suiv. [Denkwurdigkeiten means thinking about worthy ties]
  12. Fiedler. Reise, p. 285. [reise means travel].
  13. L’expedition de Moree II, p. 171-172.
  14. Puillon-Boblaye. Recherches, p.56.
  15. Stackelberg. Vues pittireques I, p.15-16.
  16. Frazer-Pausanias III, p.273 suiv, V p.593 suiv.
  17. Potami, Kremastos.
  18. Dodwell, Classical Tour II, p.408.
  19. Omont. Missions archaelogiques francaises en Orient aux XVII et XVIII siecles, I, p.607.
  20. BCH XVIII, p.99, 112114; 626 XXIV, p.207.
  21. D’Antonio Veniero; d’Andrea Contarini [these two men appear to be part of the team of Venetians that went to Troizen.] Provediteur de Modon en 1494 (Hopf Chroniques Greco-romanes, p.381. and Provediteur d’Argos en 1519 op. e., p.384.
  22. BCH XXIV, p. 201 en 1899 de nouvelles fouilles.
  23. BCH XXIV, p.201.
  24. Hitzig t. I. p.633.
  25. BCH XVII, p.85.
  26. Fougeres, Mantinee et L Arcadie orientale P.158-159.
  27. M. Lambros BCH I, tab. 1, No.11 (-schlumberger, numismatique de l’orient latin, pl XII, No.35).
  28. BCH 1900 p.182.
  29. BCH XVII, 97-98.
  30. BCH XVII, 93.
  31. Pausanias 11, 31, 8; 11, 32, 3.
  32. BCH XVII, 96.
  33. BCH XVII, 86 suiv, pps.97-98,103.
  34. Peloponnesos, 11, p.436.
  35. Bulletin BCH XXI, p.543 et suiv., pl. XIII; pl. XXI, p.544.
  36. BCH XXI pps. 543-545 et suiv, pl. XIII.
  37. BCH XXI p.547-548.
  38. BCH XXIV p.185.
  39. BCH XXIV p. 185 and p.188.
  40. Prott le Corpus du Peloponnese (IG, IV, 753 et Add., p.381) IG IV, 754.
  41. BCH XXIV p.189, No. 8.
  42. BCH XXI p.544.
  43. Bouche-Leclereq, Hist de la divination III, pps.309-313
  44. Wide, De Sacris Troezeniorum, pps. 73-75, 89.
  45. IGA IV, 760.
  46. Bas-Reinach, Mon. fig., pl44.
  47. Ath.Mitth., XXI `1896 p.280- le’existence a Trezene d’un thiase de las Grande-Mere. IG, IV, 757. 1.10 suiv. [which translated means “The existence at Trezene  of a thiasos of the Grande Mere”].
  48. Winter, Typen. I, p.22, No. 4, p.103, No. 5-7; p.5, No. 28-29; p.59, No.5-7.
  49. BCH Lechtat XV 1891 pps.27-28
  50. Hippol., 1132; Hippol., 1197.

6.5 1906 Legrand  Article: New observations on a building in Troezen

Philip Ernest Legrand Bulletin correspondence Hellenic Year 1906 Volume 30 Issue 30 pp. .. 52-57

  1. BCH XXI, pps. 543-546 suiv et XIII, XXIX, p.292 suiv.
  2. BCH XXI, pl XIII, Voir le plan publie dans le Bulletin.
  3. M. Studniezka. J’em prunta ce croqius a une letter de M Studniezka.
  4. Recueil de Millin, les planches, 1,38, 11, 58.
  5. M. Reinach.  Le repertoire de vases, les planches, 1,56,6; II, 199,1; 235, 2; 329,5; II, 336,10; I, 201, 259; planche I, 56,6.
  6. Dict des Antiquities., s.v. Lectus, pps. 1018-1019; sv Hercules fig. 3780; s.u. Coena p.1273. Fig 1690 sv Abaous, Cartibulum mensa.
  7. Miss Ransom, Couches and Beds of the Greeks, Estruscans and Romans. P. 43 ct fig. 2, 22, 25, 27.
  8. Antiquities de Myrina pl XL.
  9. Monumenti, X, pl 18.
  10. Sur une fries de l’Heroon de Gjolbaschi-Trysa (pl VII, VIII); pl VIII, A,5; plXX, A, 3-4; pl VII, A2 p.96-97.
  11. Arch. Jahr b 1892, pl 1.
  12. M.Wolters 1890, p.37 et la Maison de Megare pl 4.
  13. Ransom, o.l. fig 9 (vases a figures rouges de Corneto).
  14. Fig 28 Vase de Douris from British Museum.
  15. Kallixenos (Athen., 196 a – 197c).
  16. BCH XXI, p.546; XXIX, p.294.
  17. Olympia II, p.19 and p. 58.
  18. Pausanias, II, 31, 11.
  19. Plutarch, ‘Moralia’, p. 146.
  20. Strabo., X, 5, 11.
  21. Dittenberger SIG, 616, not.37.
  22. Homolle, BCH, XIV, p.507 et note 3


  1. Welter Bibliography from Troizen und Kalaureia published 1941.
  2. Pausanias Book II Corinth : II, 2.2 Graber des Neleus und des Sisyphos, in Nemea (Grab des Opheltes, ibid II, 15.3; in ibid II 29.8 Aigina (Grab des Aiakos) [English Translation Graves of Neleus and Sisyphos, in Nemea, grave of Opheltes, ibid II, 15.3; in ibid II 29.8 Aigina grave of Aiakos]; II, 8.5;  II, 30.5; II, 30.4; II, 30.7; II, 30.6; II, 30.8;  II, 30.9; II, 31.4 –k; II, 31.1-8; II, 31-32.6; II, 32.1ff; II, 32.7 Phyle der greek writing in Troizen s.v; II, 32.8 Ausserhalb der Stadtmauer liegt das Heiligtum des Poseidon  Phytalmios. Oberhalb des Tempels des Poseidon liegt der Heiligtum der Demeter Thesmophoros. [English Translation- Outside of the city wall is the Sanctuary of Poseidon Phytalmios. Above the Temple of Poseidon is the Sanctuary of the Demeter Thesmophoros]; II, 32.9; II, 32.10; II, 34.2; II. 34.6; II, 35.10; II, 36.3 In Didymoi bei Hermione liegt ein Heiligtum der der Demeter oberhalb eines Poseidon heiligtums (English Translation In Didymoi at Hermione there is Sanctuary of the Demeter above a Sanctuary of Poseidon); II, 36.9; II, 37.2; II, 37.5;
  3. Pausanias III,. 25.5
  4. Pausanias VIII, 3.1
  5. Pausanias IX, 34.5; IX, 31.3
  6. Stephanus Byzantius – sixth century BC
  7. Herodot VIII 42.
  8. Strabo II 6.14.
  9. Mela II 3.
  10. Fasti S.61, vgl.
  11. Skylax, Peripl.51 IGA IV 724 line 24.
  12. Bavarian Colonel Heydek in 1828.
  13. Inscriptions Graecae Antiquissimae (IGA) IV 832 line 36; IV 2.76 …3; IV 757; IV 759.19; IV 748-755;
  14. Thucydides IV 45.2 [in German Thukydides]
  15. Philometer (163-146 BC)
  16. Pouillon Boblaye (Recherches 59)
  17. Curtius (Peloponnes II. 445)
  18. Bursian (Geographie Griechenlands II 93  [Geography of Greece II 93])
  19. Ross L.  (Konigsreich II. 4 [King’s Travel II.4).
  20. Bacchylides 17 [16] 58.
  21. AM 20, 1895, 297.
  22. AM 36, 1911, 99 Illustration  2 (Schede, aus Datscha, Knidische Halbinsel)
  23. AM 26, 1901, 247 ff Pictures/Figures 13 and 14.
  24. Imhoof and Gardner, Numismatical Commentary on Pausanias 48 Picture/Figure MVIII.
  25. Herodotus VIII 41.
  26. Athens National Museum 242– eine romische kopie eines Hermes polykletischen Stils aus Troizen [English Translation: ‘Roman copy of a style of Hermes Polycleitos Troizen’]
  27. BCH 16, 1892, 165 Pictures/Figures 2 and 17.
  28. Furtwangler:  Meisterwerke 424 [English Translation Masterpieces] 424.
  29. Welter, Gabriel: Aigina; mit 87 abbildungen im text und einer übersichtskarte [English Translation : ‘with 87 illustrations in the text and available via an overview map’], Berlin, Gebr. Mann, 1938, p. 26.
  30. Head, History Number 443, British Museum Catalogue Coins Peloponnesus Pictures/Figures 30 and 31)
  31. Legrand, Philippe Ernest BCH 29, 1905, 281.
  32. Greek writing- II 1935, p. 76 (referred to by Welter on p.18).
  33. BCH 29, 1905 Die archaische Sima  Figure or Illustration 8 and 27.(English Translation The archaic Sima).  Go to S. 273 and then to BCH 30, 1915 p.86 for Douglas van Buren Greek fictile revetments (fictile coatings) in the Archaic Period (p 72 – 79 Illustrations 145 and 146.
  34. BCH a O. 273.
  35. Legrand BCH 29, 1905 p. 270-271.
  36. O. Kern: Religion d. Griechen I. 112- greek writing 1897, 2. Illustration 1-3; 1918, 1; 1905, 99; 1906, 89.
  37. AJA 7, 1903, 270.
  38. K.G. Fiedler, Reise durch alle Teile des Konigreichs griechland in den Jahren 1834-1837, I, 285 (English Translation ‘Travel through all parts of the Kingdom of Greece in the years 1834-1837’). ‘Bei Feierlichkeiten (der Bauern von Damala) wurden oft ein paar Hundert solcher Festlampchen pyramidenformig ubereinander gestellte und angezundet’. II Illustration 3 number 17 Illustration eines Lampchens. (English Translation- At ceremonies (the peasants of Damala) were often afew hundred. They had fixed little lamps in the shape of pyramids one above the other).
  39. Knidos: Newton: Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Knidos usw (etc), p. 378- 393ff-Halikarnassos : p. 327.
  40. Akragas: Koldewey and Puchstein, Griech. Tempel 143; not.scavi (excavation note) 1926, p.142f; a.O. 89 not.scavi (excavation note) 1894, p.205 p.207.
  41. P. Marconi: Agrigento 69- Gaggera bei Selinus. (Gaggera at Selinus)
  42. Mon.Ant. 32 1927 p.369ff.
  43. Tega greek writing 1910, 274.
  44. Gortyn: AA 1909, p.102-Athen Thesmorphorion auf der Pnyx.
  45. Hesperia : 5 1936, p. 179f , Illustration 63- Die Kultverdordnung uber zugelassene Opfergaben im Heiligtum der Despione in Lykosoura fuhrt ol, Bilder, Lampen auf (greek writing 1898, p.249).  (English Translation The old regulations were used in the Sanctuary of Despoine in Lykosoura and these revealed pictures, and oil lamps).
  46. Sylloge, 939.(Dittenberger)
  47. Lampen beim Nachfest der Thesmophorien: Aristoph Thesmoph 280.655 (English Translation Lamps for after the feast of Thesmophorien)
  48. AJA 22, 1918, 212 Illustration 18. Da zu Kopf emit Kalathos-Lokale uner formungen korinth ist der Terrakotten des Typus (English Translation At the head of Kalathos location, there are formations over Corinth of the terracotta of Typus).
  49. Winter, Typen I, 58.3.
  50. Arg. Her II, 34 number 166 Figure 46.9.
  51. Tiryns I, 88 number 170.
  52. Aigina Museum ; Korinth National Museum. 4407 aus dem Heraion von Perachora im National Museum Athens.  (English Translation from the Heraion of Perachora in the National Museum of Athens)
  53. BCH 32, 1908, 143 (Delos).
  54. Clara Rhodes VI-VII 364 Illustration 113.

55.Tiryns I, 100 Illustration 36; I, 97 Illustration 30; I, 102.211.

  1. Corinth IV 132 number  37 Illustration 57; 137 number 87 Illustration 61, Figure/Picture 10a.
  2. Aigina Aphaia 382 number 92 Ringformer Aryballos
  3. G.A.S Snijder, Guttus and Verwandtes (and related others): Mnemosyne 1934, 8. Figure 4, number 16.
  4. Massfunde (authoritative findings): Tiryns I, 103; I, 79ff.
  5. Thera II, 192.
  6. Blinkenberg and Kinch, Exploration of Rhodes 3- report 113f (Lindos). Aigina Aphaia 451, number 190
  7. AA 1932, 162, Kolonnahugel.
  8. H. Goldman, Eutresis, p. 262
  9. Arg. Her. II, 101.
  10. IG IV 122, XXIII
  11. IG IV 123, XLVIII.
  12. FHG II 15.8 Hippys von Rhegion.
  13. Herodotus 5.82.
  14. IG IV 1588.
  15. Gortys (VIII 28.1).
  16. Sikyon (II 10.3).
  17. Philius (II 13.5).
  18. Hesych s.v. in Aigina Aischrologie.
  19. Gruppe. Mythologue 453; 434 A 3.
  20. IG IV 530.
  21. IG IV 531, 414.
  22. IG IV 751, 9.
  23. BCH 21, 1987, 543ff 29, 1905, 292ff.
  24. BCH 30, 1906, 52 dann Abb. (from the illustration) Sachs ges d. Wiss 30, 1914, 146ff.
  25. JdI 32, 1917, 114- Frickenhause.
  26. IG IV p. 771-772.
  27. BCH 24, 1900, p.188; 1905, p.298.
  28. AA 1938, 21 Illustration 14 mit 8 Abteilungen (with 8 sections).
  29. AM 23, 1898, 20 Epidauros.
  30. IG IV 986 mit 3 Abteilungen (with 3 sections).
  31. AM 24, 1899, p.396.
  32. IG IV S. 173.
  33. Delos, Le Sanctuaire des dieux de Samothrace (English Translation The Sanctuary of the Gods of Samothrace), Illustration 5.62.
  34. Strabo I, 2.18 p.59.
  35. Podagra and Blahungen from (Plin. Nat. Hist. XXXI, 2.11; vitrov VIII 3.6; Athen II, 42a).
  36. Theophrast. Hist, plant. IX, 18.11; Athen. I, 31c.
  37. Plutarch. Quaest. Gr. 295 Athen I 31c.
  38. Miss M. Farnsworth- with the help of Miss Farnsworth, an American Chemist, Welter was able to have the water from the spring of Herakles analysed.  Welter writes that now the waters of this spring are diverted for the irrigation of the lemon orchards for the good of Kokkinia.
  39. Greek writing 3, 1917, Illustration S.33 and 44 (this is on page 37 of Welter).
  40. IG IV 781.
  41. E. Sukenik: Ancient Synagogues in Palestine and Greece 71. Figure 17a. Beth-Gebrin NN. Baute dieses Saule zu Ehren der Synagogue (built on this side to honour the synagogue), ibid 72.
  42. BCH 56, 1932, p. 291 Figure 19 Einer Saule der Synagogue von Stobi (English Translation A column of Stobi).
  43. Delos XVI Sanctuaire des Dieux de Samothrace 65 (The Sanctuary of the Gods of Samothrace).
  44. IG III, 1122, Zeile 78 (line 78).
  45. IG IV 790, 792.
  46. IG IV 754  ‘Gymnasion des Hippolytos’ (Gymnasium of Hippolytos’.
  47. IG IV 832,36.
  48. Athen-National Museum Number 10800 dem Kopf Golddiadem ( the head with the gold tiara or diadem).
  49. IG IV 801.

105 Sir William Gell: Itinerary of Greece, p. 121.

  1. L’expedition de Moree II, p.172,
  2. IG IV 800 Inschrift (Inscription).
  3. Priene 277 Illustration 283 Gymnasion in Priene (Gymnasium in Priene).
  4. Milet I, 9.94.
  5. Ojh 15, 1912, Beibl. 196; ebd , 1915, Beibl. 279.
  6. Zenob IV 20 referring to Demeter.
  7. Roussel, Delos 293 and Plan.
  8. Philostrat.vit.soph. II, 1.15