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Map Of Troizen

mapoftroizenIndex of Features
1. The Acropolis
2. Sanctuary of Pan Lyterios
3. Sanctuary of Aphrodite Akraia
4. Sanctuary of Isis
5. Sanctuary of Demeter Thesmophoros
6. Sanctuary of Poseidon Phytalmios
7. Western slopes of the town
8. Western city walls
9. Eastern city walls
10. Diatchisma
11. The walls at the northern end of the city
12. Museion
13. Agora
14. Temple of Artemis
15. Theatre
16. Northern part of the town
17. Devil’s George and Bridge
18. Sanctuaries outside the city and to the west
The features to be included in the survey (This should be read in conjunction with Professor Reinhart
Stupperich’s paper:
Troizen: Possible Questions concerning a Survey and Excavations – Present
Answers. 2007

1. The Acropolis and the upper and lower fortifications.
The study of the acropolis is very difficult due to the very steep terrain and the dense vegetation
covering the area. There is no surviving evidence of the temple of Athena Sthennias to be seen and
much of the ancient acropolis has been overbuilt with later stone buildings. Only chance findings
relating to the ancient temple are likely. It may be possible to identify, draw, measure and map the
fortification walls surrounding the acropolis at the upper and lower levels.

2. Sanctuary of Pan Lyterios
Pausanias identified the sanctuary as being on the way down from the acropolis. Le Grande found
evidence of a terrace supported by irregular stones that he thought were part of the sanctuary.

3. Sanctuary of Aphrodite Akraia
Welter’s measurements of the temple need to be tested and further studies could be made of the
temenos walls and of other structures in the surrounding area after cleaning the surface.

4. Sanctuary of Isis
An attempt should be made to locate and map the temple which is believed to be below the Sanctuary
of Aphrodite Akraia.

5. Sanctuary of Demeter Thesmophoros
It should be possible to determine the approximate location, even if only by small votive finds similar
to those found by Legrand and Welter.

6. Sanctuary of Poseidon Phytalmios
A search might be undertaken below the sanctuary of Demeter, which is where Pausanias said the
sanctuary was located.

7. Western slopes of the town
The study should include the paths from above the ‘Hellenistic tower’ that lead toward the acropolis
(the ancient sacred way?) and wind across to the sanctuary of Aphrodite Akraia. Also the study
should include the walls below the acropolis that could be of houses or fortifications.

8. Western city walls
The study should be part of an attempt to identify the entire perimeter of the city walls, including the
east and north sides. The location of the upper level of the west wall needs to be identified as the
direction of the wall on Legrand and Welter maps differ by almost 30 degree.

9. Eastern city walls
Parts of the eastern wall can still be seen above ground. Aerial photography and below surface
scanning may help identify the other lower parts of the wall in the plain.

A study could be made to confirm the location and direction of the wall, particularly its connection with
the western city wall and the chronological order of the building sequence.

11.The walls at the northern end of the city
A study might be able to confirm the line of the entire city wall in the flat lower part of the town – and if
Welter’s map is correct. Cf. No. 9.

The Museion requires detailed study because of its central importance to Welter’s calculations of
other features of the city. The Museion may be the first location where later excavation should be

Perhaps the location of the agora can be confirmed with the use of below ground scanning but this
may be impossible due to the dense lemon plantation. There are a number of worked stones, building
blocks and part of a metope in the lemon groves in this area and to search for more indications might
prove helpful before starting detailed search with more expensive higher techniques.

14.Temple of Artemis
An attempt should be made to locate the temple that was believed to have been identified by

The theatre may have been in the naturally curved slope below the quarry – where Welter calculated
its location, based on Pausanias. Below surface scanning may be helpful but there has been a
significant build-up of displaced soil here from higher up.

16.Northern part of the town
There are better opportunities for surveying the northern parts of the town where the land is flatter and
there is less farming and other vegetation cover. This also applies to possible roads leading out of the
town and towards the harbours. There is an early Christian church here that has reused earlier
ancient stones in its construction.

17.Devil’s Gorge and Bridge
The aqueducts and the course of the water from the upper western side of the city have not been
comprehensively studied. It is likely the water was fed from the upper western side to the upper levels
of the city to the east, to the lower levels of the city and to the sanctuaries on the outside of the city on
the lower western side, including the Sanctuary of Hippolytus.
The study should involve an analysis of the structure, function, date and role of the water system, and
•The original source of the water at the upper level on the western side of the gorge.
•Devils Bridge and the lower Devils Bridge (which are not in the earlier archaeological maps).
• The 4 meter and 7 meter walls above the path a little below the Devils Bridge on the western side of
the gorge.
•The direction of the ducts to the eastern side of the gorge.
•The possibility of water ducts to the Asklepieion and other sanctuaries outside the western side of the

18.Sanctuaries outside the city, especially to the west
This area was the focus of much of Welters work. It is also suitable for the use of below ground
scanning equipment. The features to be studied in the survey could include:
•The Sanctuary of Hippolytus
•The Sanctuary of Asklepios

A search using scanners could also be made in the area to locate other features believed to be in the
Asklepieion or nearby:
•Stadium (Welter thought the stadium was near or under the later built Episkopi. Legrand believes it to
be further east, beyond an area now fenced off from the Asklepieion)
•Temple of Apollo Thearios
•Temple of Apollon Epibaterios
•Heracles Fountain

19.Other Features yet to be identified
There are a number of other features of the ancient site that have not been located. These include:
•The ancient road from Troizen to Ermione
•The Sanctuary of Zeus Soter. (near the Devil’s Gorge?)
•Sanctuary of Aphrodite Nymphias. (Close to Theseus Stone?)
•Stone of Theseus (Alter of Zeus Sthennios?)

20.Reconstruction of the historic landscape
To get a general impression of the setting of the town of Troizen the surrounding area should be
visited in a more general way, before going into details with specialized survey methods. An attempt
at reconstruction of the physical landscape surrounding the town in historic times by geographers,
mainly aiming at the late bronze age to late Roman times, would be helpful and important.